What do the surveys tell us about migration in Armenia?

In total, the 2 000 households interviewed included 8 902 individuals. Of these, only 131 were immigrants, which meant there were not sufficient data to analyse immigration. A total of 550 households had emigrants - 28% of all households in the sample (Figure 3.2, left-hand pie chart), from which 819 former household members had emigrated. Among current members of the sampled households, 707 were return migrants: specific data about their migration experience were collected. The 509 households with return migrants formed 25% of all households in the sample (Figure 3.2, right-hand pie chart), while 106 households (5% of the sample) had both emigrants (one or more) and return migrants (one or more). Overall, 48% of households had an emigrant, a return migrant or both, while the other 52% did not.

Figure 3.2. The share of households with emigrants and return migrants is similar

Share of households, by migration experience (%)

Source: Authors’ own work based on IPPMD data.

The migration dimensions of emigration and return were left to chance in the sampling of migrant households, therefore their numbers reflect their relative importance in each marz. Figure 3.3 shows the prevalence of emigrants and return migrants in each marz, based on the household data. It ranges from a relative share of 25% of households with at least one return migrant in Aragatsotn to 75% of households in Shirak.

Figure 3.3. Emigration and return migration rates vary by province

Relative share of emigrants and return migrants among migrant households (%), by province

Source: Authors’ own work based on IPPMD data.

Table 3.3 shows how household characteristics differ depending on their migration experience. Households with emigrants are more likely to be located in rural areas, while households with return migrants are more often found in urban areas. Households with emigrants are only marginally smaller than those without, which, given that at least one of their members has left the household, suggests that these households were slightly larger than average before migration. Similarly, the dependency ratio is higher for households with emigrants, even though they are less likely to include children. Overall, 36% of households are headed by women, but there are large differences between the groups. About half of the households with emigrants have a female head, whereas this is the case for only one third of the households without migrants, and a bit less for the households with return migrants. This comes as no surprise given that the large majority of emigrants (77%) and return migrants (72%) are men, who often re-assume the position of household head on their return (44% of return migrants are head of the household). Households with an emigrant had a lower likelihood of having at least one member having completed postsecondary education than households without migration experience, while households with return migrants seem to be the most educated.

For the purposes of this project, a household-level wealth indicator was constructed based on questions in the household survey on the number of assets owned by the household. Assets include a range of items, from cell phones to real estate. The wealth indicator was created using principal component analysis. It suggests that households with migration experience tend to be wealthier.

Table 3.3. On average, households with migration experience are wealthier than households without

Characteristics of sampled households

Total sample

Households with no migration experience

Households with at least one emigrant

Households

receiving

remittances

Households with at least one return migrant

Number of households

2 000 (100%)

996 (51%)

550 (28.2%)

501 (26%)

509 (26%)

Households in rural areas (%)

50

50

56

57

47

Household size, individuals

4.0

4.1

3.5

3.6

4.5

Dependency ratio3

0.55

0.53

0.64

0.63

0.48

Households with children (0-14 years, %)

45

45

39

44

52

Households with female household head (%)

36

33

50

51

30

Share of households with a member having completed post-secondary education (%)

49

50

46

48

52

Wealth indicator11

33.3

32.5

34.2

35.1

34.6

Households with members planning to emigrate (%)c

18

10

22

25

34

Note: The categories are not mutually exclusive, e.g. a household with both an emigrant and a return migrant is included both as a household with an emigrant, and a household with a return migrant.

a) The dependency ratio is the number of children and elderly persons divided by the number of people of working age (15-65). b) The wealth indicator is standardised ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating wealthier households. c) The share of households with a member planning to emigrate is based on a direct question asked to all adults (15 years or older) whether or not they have plans to live and or work in another country in the future.

Source: Authors’ own work based on IPPMD data.

to emigrate (%)c

The household survey also included a question on whether individual household members aged 15 or over had plans to emigrate. The data show that plans to emigrate are more prevalent for migrant households, especially those with return migrants. A large share of this can be attributed to return migrants themselves, as 28% of them plan to emigrate again, compared to 7% of their household members.

Table 3.4 summarises the characteristics of adults from the sampled households, broken down by whether they are non-migrants, returned migrants or current emigrants. Emigrants are the youngest group, with an average age of 38, compared to non-migrants (44) and return migrants (43). Overall, women account for 52% of the adults in the sample. The share of women among emigrants and return migrants is much lower, at 23% and 28% respectively.

Among individuals without migration experience, 44% have completed post-secondary education. This share is slightly lower for return migrants, and significantly lower for emigrants. Among those planning to emigrate in the future (not shown), 56% has completed post-secondary education.

Table 3.4. Emigrants on average are younger, less educated and more likely

to be men

Characteristics of individuals from sampled households

Non-migrants

Emigrants

Return migrants

Number of individuals

5 593

819

707

Average age

44

38

43

Share of women (%)

60

23

28

Share (25+) having completed post-secondary education (%)

44

39

42

Note: Only adults (15+) are included. Immigrants are excluded. The group of non-migrants includes individuals in households with and without migrants. To calculate education status, the analysis included individuals aged 25 or over - the age by which they would have completed post-secondary education.

Source: Authors’ own work based on IPPMD data.

 
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