• 1. Usually in France, and in school, ‘Shoah’ is used instead of ‘Holocaust’, because the latter has a meaning of holy sacrifice that is quite out of line for the extermination of the European Jews. The Hebrew word Shoah means catastrophe and is sometimes substituted by the more general concept of genocide especially when the lesson deals also with the extermination of the Romani.
  • 2. The resulting historical perspective might be rather mythical. See Rodriguez (2009).
  • 3. For current examples, see the website of the professional association his- toriensetgeographes, and specifically the column , or the website for teachers . See also for example the sections on the trade union website .
  • 4. Nearly always defined as a struggle only to convert or submit the nonMuslim; the inner struggle against the believer's tendency to act against God's will and the effort of becoming a better Muslim is scarce in the textbooks. A significant omission in the present context.
  • 5. Representative of these rough and abusively generalized statements is the book edited by Emmanuel Brenner (2002).
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