1. Following the distinction made by Lee and Ashby (2000), history educators often distinguish between “substantive” or “first-order” concepts such as those listed here, and “second-order” concepts such as perspective, causation or empathy, which purportedly “provide our understanding of history as a discipline or form of knowledge” (p. 199). Although Lee and Ashby do not dismiss the importance of substantive knowledge, an unfortunate consequence of this distinction—and of the quest for disciplinary distinctiveness—has been a lack of concern among many researchers with the role that substantive concepts play in students’ understanding of history. For examples of history educators who have begun to consider the importance of substantive concepts, see van Drie and van Boxtel (2008) and VanSledright and Limon (2006).
Alpern-Engel, B. (2003). Women in Revolutionary Russia, 1861-1926. In C. Faure (Ed.), Political and Historical Encyclopedia of Women (pp. 249-266). New York, NY: Routledge.
Barton, K. C. (1997). “Bossed Around by the Queen”: Elementary Students’ Understanding of Individuals and Institutions in History. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 12, 290-314.
Barton, K. C. (2005). Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths. Phi Delta Kappan, 86, 745-753.
Barton, K. C. (2008). Students’ Ideas About History. In L. S. Levstik & C. A. Tyson (Eds.), Handbook ofResearch in Social Studies Education (pp. 239-258). New York, NY: Routledge.
Barton, K. C., & Avery, P. G. (2016). Research on Social Studies Education: Diverse Students, Settings, and Methods. In C. A. Bell & D. Gitomer (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (Fifth ed.) (pp. 985-1038). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Barton, K. C., & Levstik, L. S. (2004). Teaching History for the Common Good. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bernstein, B. (1971). On the Classification and Framing of Educational Knowledge. In M. F. D. Young (Ed.), Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Knowledge (pp. 47-69). London, UK: Collier-Macmillan.
Boix Mansilla, V., & Gardner, H. (2008). Disciplining the Mind. Educational Leadership, 65, 14-19.
Bradley Commission on History in Schools. (1988). Building a History Curriculum: Guidelines for Teaching History in Schools. Washington, DC: Educational Excellence Network.
Brier, J. (2009). Infectious Ideas: U.S. Political Responses to the AIDS Crisis. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Carretero, M., Castorina, J. A., & Levinas, L. (2013). Conceptual Change and Historical Narratives About the Nation: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach. In
S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change (Second ed.) (pp. 269-287). New York, NY: Routledge.
Cha, J. H. (1994). Aspects of Individualism and Collectivism in Korea. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitfibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology Series, 18 (pp. 157-174). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Chambre, S. M. (2006). Fighting for Our Lives: New York’s AIDS Community and the Politics of Disease. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Cleary, E. L. (1997). The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America. Westport, CN: Praeger.
Clements, B. E. (1982). Working-Class and Peasant Women in the Russian Revolution, 1917-1923. Signs, 8, 215-235.
Clements, B. E. (1997). Bolshevik Women. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Council for Economic Education. (2010). Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics (Second ed.). New York, NY: Author.
Crocco, M. S., & Thornton, S. J. (2002). Social Studies in the New York City Public Schools: A Descriptive Study. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17, 206-231.
Denos, M., & Case, R. (2006). Teaching About Historical Thinking. Vancouver, British Columbia: The Critical Thinking Consortium.
Dickson, C. (2014, July 14). How Mexico’s Cartels Are Behind the Border Kid Crisis. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/06/23/ how-mexico-s-cartels-are-behind-the-border-kid-crisis.html
Drake, F. D., & Nelson, L. R. (2009). Engagement in Teaching History: Theory and Practices for Middle and Secondary Teachers (Second ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Endacott, J. L., & Brooks, S. (2013). An Updated Theoretical and Practical Model of Historical Empathy. Social Studies Research and Practice, 8, 41-58.
Ercikan, K., & Seixas, P. (Eds.). (2015). New Directions in Assessing Historical Thinking. New York: Routledge.
Erler, M., & Kowaleski, M. (Eds.). (1988). Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Franklin, J. H., & Schweninger, L. (1999). Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Giddens, A. (1971). Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim, and Max Weber. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Harris, M. (1976). History and Significance of the Emic/Etic Distinction. Annual Review of Anthropology, 5, 329-350.
Hess, D. (2005). Moving Beyond Celebration: Challenging Curricular Orthodoxy in the Teaching of Brown and Its Legacy. Teachers College Record, 107, 2046-2067.
Hudson, M., & Holmes, B. (1994). Missing Teachers, Impaired Communities: The Unanticipated Consequences of Brown vs Board of Education on the African American Teaching Force at the Precollegiate Level. The Journal ofNegro Education, 63, 388-393.
Hulse, C. (2014, July 7). Immigrant Surge Rooted in Law to Curb Child Trafficking. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/08/us/ immigrant-surge-rooted-in-law-to-curb-child-trafficking.html?_r=2
Hwang, K.-K. (1999). Filial Piety and Loyalty: Two Types of Social Identification in Confucianism. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 163-183.
Jordan, W. D. (1977). White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. New York, NY: Norton.
Kim, A. E., & Park, G. (2003). Nationalism, Confucianism, Work Ethic and Industrialization in South Korea. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 33, 37-49.
Kitson, A., & Husbands, C. (2011). Teaching and learning history 11-18: Understanding the Past. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
Klarman, M. (1994). How Brown Changed Race Relations: The Backlash Thesis. The Journal of American History, 81, 81-118.
Knight, P. (1989). Empathy: Concept, Confusion and Consequence in a National Curriculum. Oxford Review of Education, 15, 41-53.
Ko, S. B. (2006). South Korea’s Search for an Independent Foreign Policy. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 36, 258-273.
Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum.
Kuklinski, J. H., Quirk, P. J., Jerit, J., Schwieder, D., & Rich, R. F. (2000). Misinformation and the Currency of Democratic Citizenship. Journal of Politics, 62, 790-816.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2004). Landing on the Wrong Note: The Price We Paid for Brown. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-13.
Larson, B. E., & Keiper, T. A. (2013). Instructional Strategies for Middle and High School (Second ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lee, P., & Ashby, R. (2001). Empathy, Perspective Taking, and Rational Understanding. In O. L. Davis, E. A. Yeager, & S. J. Foster (Eds.), Historical Empathy and Perspective Taking in the Social Studies (pp. 21-50). New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield.
Lee, P., & Ashby, R. (2000). Progression in Historical Understanding Ages 7-14. In P. N. Stearns, P. Seixas, & S. Wineburg (Eds.), Knowing, Teaching, and learning History: National and International Perspectives (pp. 199-222). New York, NY: New York University Press.
Lee, P., & Howson, J. (2009). “Two Out of Five Did Not Know That Henry VIII Had Six Wives”: History Education, Historical Literacy, and Historical Consciousness. In L. Symcox & A. Wilschut (Eds.), National History Standards: The Problem of the Canon and the Future ofTeaching History (pp. 211-261). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Lesh, B. A. (2011). Why Won’t You Just Tell Us the Answer? In Teaching historical thinking in Grades 7-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Levenson, J. (2004). The Secret Epidemic: The Story of AIDS and Black America. New York: Pantheon.
Levesque, S. (2009). Thinking Historically: Educating Students for the Twenty-First Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Lim, S. H. (2007). Saemaul Movement and Rural Development. [Research
on Agricultural History], 6, 129-149.
Lim, T. S., Kim, S. Y., & Kim, J. (2011). Holism: A Missing Link in Individualism- Collectivism Research. Journal of International Curriculum R.esearch, 40, 21-38.
Moje, E. B. (2008). Foreground the Disciplines in Secondary Literacy Teaching and Learning: A Call for Change. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52, 96-107.
Morgan, E. S. (1975). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York, NY: Norton.
Myers, G. A., McGreevy, P., Carney, G. O., & Kenny, J. (2003). Cultural Geography. In G. L. Gaile & C. J. Willmott (Eds.), Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century (pp. 82-96). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
N. G. S. S. Lead States. (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Ng, A. C. Y., Phillips, D. R., & Lee, W. K. (2002). Persistence and Challenges to Filial Piety and Informal Support of Older Persons in a Modern Chinese Society: A Case Study in Tuen Mun, Hong Kong. Journal of Aging Studies, 16, 135-153.
Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2010). When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions. Political Behavior, 32, 303-330.
Nyong, A. O., & Kanaroglou, P. S. (1999). Domestic Water Use in Rural Semiarid Africa: A Case Study of Katarko Village in Northeastern Nigeria. Human Ecology, 27, 537-555.
Parker, W. C. (2012). Social Studies in Elementary Education (Fourteenth ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Patterson, J. T. (2001). Brown vs. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Planas, R. & Grim, R. (2014, July 18). Here’s How the U.S. Sparked a Refugee Crisis on the Border, in 8 Simple Steps. Huffington Post. Retrieved from www.huffington- post.com/2014/07/18/refugee-crisis-border_n_5596125.html
Ravitch, D. (1988). From History to Social Studies: Dilemmas and Problems. In B. R. Gifford (Ed.), History in the Schools: What Shall We Teach? (pp. 41-53). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Restrepo, D. & Garcia, A. (2014, July 14). The Surge of Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Root Causes and Policy Solutions. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/ 2014/07/24/94396/the-surge-of-unaccompanied-children-from-central-america- root-causes-and-policy-solutions/
Rogers, P. (1995). History and Economic Awareness: Theory and Empirical Test. In A. Dickinson, P. Gordon, P. Lee, & J. Slater (Eds.), International Yearbook ofHistory Education (pp. 190-208). Portland, OR: Woburn Press.
Seixas, P. (2001). Review of Research on Social Studies. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (Fourth ed., pp. 545-565). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Rethinking Content-Area Literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78, 40-59.
Smith, R. A., & Siplon, P. D. (2006). Drugs into Bodies: Global AIDS Treatment Activism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Stearns, P. N. (2004). Thinking History. Washington DC: American Historical Association.
Stewart, J. B. (1976). Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York, NY: Hill and Wang.
Sung, K. T. (1990). A New Look at Filial Piety: Ideals and Practices of Family-Centered Parent Care in Korea. The Gerontological Society of America, 30, 610-616.
Sung, K. T. (1995). Measure and Dimensions ofFilial Piety in Korea. The Gerontological Society of America, 35, 240-247.
Thornton, S. J., & Barton, K. C. (2010). Can History Stand Alone? Drawbacks and Blind Spots ofa “Disciplinary” Curriculum. Teachers College Record, 112, 2471-2495.
Tosh, P. (2008). Why History Matters. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees. (n.d.). Children on the Run: Unaccompanied Children Leaving Central America and Mexico and the Need for International Protection. Washington, DC: Author.
Van Drie, J., & Van Boxtel, C. (2008). Historical Reasoning: Towards a Framework for Analyzing Students’ Reasoning About the Past. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 87-110.
VanSledright, B. A. (2014). Assessing Historical Thinking and Understanding: Innovative Designs for New Standards. New York, NY: Routledge.
VanSledright, B., & Limon, M. (2006). Learning and Teaching Social Studies: A Review of Cognitive Research in History and Geography. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (Second ed.) (pp. 545-570). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Wilentz, S. (1997, April 20). The Past is Not a “Process”. The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/20/opinion/the-past- is-not-a-process.html
Wilschut, A. (2009). Canonical Standards or Orientational Frames of Reference? The Cultural and the Educational Approach to the Debate About Standards in History Teaching. In L. Symcox & A. Wilschut (Eds.), National History Standards: The Problem of the Canon and the Future of Teaching History (pp. 117-139). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Woodcock, J. (2005). Does the Linguistic Release the Conceptual? Helping Year 10 to Improve Their Causal Reasoning. Teaching History, 119, 5-14.
Yang, I. J. (2006). Jeong Exchange and Collective Leadership in Korean Organizations. Asian Pacific Journal of Management, 23, 283-298.
Zezima, K. (2014, June 6). Could Rumors Be Partially Responsible for an Influx of Unaccompanied Minors to the U.S.? Washington Post. Retrieved from www.wash- ingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2014/06/06/could-rumors-be-partially-responsible- for-an-influx-of-unaccompanied-children-to-the-u-s/