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Cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson disease

Epidemiology of dementia associated with Parkinson's diseasePoint prevalenceIncidencePeriod (cumulative) prevalenceTime to dementia in PDRisk factors for dementia in PDParkinsonismMild cognitive impairmentVisual hallucinationsRapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorderOlfactory dysfunctionCerebrovascular risk factorsGeneticsSmokingMedications and cholinergic deficitsGenderOther factorsConclusionsReferencesGeneral features, mode of onset, and course of dementia in Parkinson's diseaseGeneral features of PD-DMode and age of onsetMode of onsetAge at onset of dementia and time from disease onset to dementiaPredictors and early signsPredictors of dementiaEarly symptoms of incipient dementiaCourse of dementia and rate of progressionRate of progressionDeterminants of progression rateSurvivalPathological determinants of dementia in PDConclusionReferencesCognitive profile in Parkinson's disease dementiaCognitive domains and their assessmentAverage effect size: a meta-analytic approachDeficits in individual cognitive domains in PD-DAttention and executive functionsAttention and bradyphreniaVisuospatial functionsMemoryLanguageConclusion: the overall cognitive profile in PD-DReferencesNeuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease dementiaEpidemiologyPrevalence of neuropsychiatric symptomsComparison with other disease statesClinical presentationDepression and anxietyApathyPsychosisAgitationDisorders of sleep and wakefulnessPseudobulbar affectImpulse control disordersImpact of deep brain stimulationClinical impactCorrelates and risk factorsPathophysiology of neuropsychiatric symptomsAssessment and diagnosisManagement of neuropsychiatric symptomsDepression and anxietyApathyPsychosis and agitationDisorders of sleep and wakefulnessPseudobulbar affectConclusionReferencesInteraction between affect and executive functions in Parkinson's diseaseIntroductionDepression and executive functions in PDApathy and executive functions in PDAnhedonia and executive functions in PDConclusionReferencesMotor symptoms and phenotype in patients with Parkinson's disease dementiaMotor phenotype in patients with PD-DA data-driven approach to motor phenotype and cognitionExpanding the motor phenotypeEarly cognitive impairment and motor functionMotor phenotype as a risk factor for dementiaResponse to levodopa and motor complicationsLevodopa-induced motor complicationsNeuroleptic sensitivityRate of progression of motor symptoms in PD-DConclusionReferencesInteraction between cognition and gait in patients with Parkinson's diseaseGait disturbances and fall riskChanges in cognition, attention, and executive functionCognitive function and continuous gait changesFreezing of gait and cognitive deficitsConclusionReferencesDisorders of sleep and autonomic function in Parkinson's disease dementiaSleep disturbances in PD-DInsomnia in PD-DREM sleep behaviour disorderExcessive daytime sleepinessAutonomic dysfunction in PD-DPathophysiology of autonomic symptomsConclusionReferencesStructural and functional neuroimaging in patients with Parkinson's disease dementiaStructural magnetic resonance imagingDiffusion tensor imagingFunctional activity imagingPerfusion and metabolismDopaminergic imagingCholinergic imagingAmyloid imagingCardiac scintigraphy imagingConclusionReferencesBiomarkers for cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's diseaseBiological heterogeneityThe need for biomarkersCerebrospinal fluid markersa-SynucleinAmyloid-betaTauOther CSF biomarker candidatesMarkers of protein degradationMarkers of Ap production and clearanceOxidative stress markersNeuroinflammatory markersMarkers in other bodily fluidsGenetic risk markersApolipoprotein E (APOE)Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)Glucocerebrosidase (GBA)Cathecol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)Neuroimaging markersConclusionReferencesElectrophysiological and other auxiliary investigations in patients with Parkinson's disease dementiaElectrophysiological methodsElectroencephalography (EEG)Evoked potentialsAuditory evoked potentials (AEPs)Visual evoked potentials (VEPs)Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs)Event-related potentials (ERPs)MIBG myocardial scintigraphyConclusionReferencesThe genetic basis of dementia in Parkinson's diseaseFinding genes that underlie diseaseGene mutations known to cause dominant PD associated with dementiaSNCA (previously PARK1, PARK4; encoding the protein a-synuclein)LRRK2 (PARK8; encoding the protein Lrrk2/dardarin)Dementias with parkinsonismSynucleinopathiesTauopathiesGenetic risk factors for PD-DAPOEGBAOther genetic risk factors for PD-DNext steps in gene identification for dementia in PDConclusionReferencesNeurochemical pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodiesChanges in neurotransmitter systems in PD-DDopamine: pre-synaptic dopaminergic measuresPost-synaptic dopaminergic measuresAcetylcholineNicotinic receptor changesMuscarinic receptor changesRelationship between cholinergic medication and Alzheimer-type pathologyGlutamateGABASerotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)NoradrenalineCalciumSynaptic dysfunction in PD-DConclusionReferencesPathological correlates of dementia in Parkinson's diseaseLewy body pathologyAlzheimer's disease-related pathologyDistribution of pathology and clinico-pathological correlationDisease progressionAetiologies underlying neurodegenerationConclusionReferencesEpidemiology, diagnosis, and correlates of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's diseaseFrequency estimates of PD-MCIDiagnostic criteria for MCIThe pattern of cognitive impairment in PD-MCIGenetic and clinical correlates of PD-MCILRRK2ParkinGBAAPOE, MAPT, COMTNeuroimaging studies of MCI in PDStructural imagingSingle-photon emission computed tomographyPositron emission tomography (PET)Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) PET imagingAmyloid imagingCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkersConclusionReferencesThe pathophysiological and prognostic heterogeneity of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's diseaseHeterogeneity of MCI in PDPrognosis of early cognitive deficits in PDGenetic influences on cognition in PDCOMTMAPTAPOEGBAFunctional imagingFrontostriatal dysfunctionNon-dopaminergic networksConclusionReferencesSpectrum of Lewy body dementias: relationship of Parkinson's disease dementia to dementia with Lewy bodiesComparative neuropathological, neurochemical, and biomarker studiesNeuropathologyCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)NeurochemistryComparative studies of clinical features in PD-D and DLBCognitive deficitsNeuropsychiatric symptomsParkinsonismCognitive and functional declineStructural and functional imagingMIBGMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)SPECTPIB imagingElectrophysiologyGenetic studiesTreatment responseCholinesterase inhibitorsMemantineAntipsychoticsLevodopaClinicopathological dimensions rather than categories: personal interpretationConclusionReferencesSpectrum of disorders with dementia and parkinsonismTauopathies and cognitionProgressive supranuclear palsyCorticobasal degenerationFrontotemporal dementia with parkinsonismMultiple system atrophy and cognitionConclusionReferencesDiagnosis of dementia in Parkinson's diseaseDiagnosis of dementiaTaking the historyAssessment of cognitive functionsComposite cognitive scalesNeuropsychological testsAssessment of behavioural symptomsAssessment of functional impairmentAuxillary methodsDiagnostic criteria for PD-DDifferential diagnosisConclusionReferencesManagement of Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodiesMaking and disclosing the diagnosisMaking a problem list, managing antiparkinsonian medications, and non-pharmacological approachesSpecific treatments for cognitive impairmentCholinesterase inhibitorsUsing ChE-Is in practice: predictors of outcome, side effects, and discontinuationN-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and dopaminergic drugsDrug treatment of psychiatric and behavioural symptomsConclusionReferencesParkinson's disease: what will the future bring?Progress towards understanding disease mechanismsFrom mechanism to treatmentReferences
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