Log in / Register
Home arrow Health arrow Cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson disease


Patients with PD suffer from cognitive deficits, especially in executive functions and attention. Gait disturbances, both continuous and episodic, are also common in PD. While many questions remain about the relationship between these symptoms, it appears that these are not independent. Rather, cognitive deficits seem to exacerbate motor dysfunction in both the continuous and episodic gait disturbances, increasing the risk of falls R. As summarized in Fig. 8.6, recognition of this interrelationship may help to improve the management of gait disturbances in PD.


  • 1. Balash Y, Peretz C, Leibovich G, et al. Falls in outpatients with Parkinson’s disease: frequency, impact and identifying factors. J Neurol 2005; 252: 1310-15.
  • 2. Bloem BR, Hausdorff JM, Visser JE, et al. Falls and freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: a review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 871-84.
  • 3. Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, et al. The pathogenesis of gait hypokinesia in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1994; 117: 1169-81.
  • 4. Pickering RM, Grimbergen YA, Rigney U, et al. A meta-analysis of six prospective studies of falling in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1892-900.
  • 5. Kang GA, Bronstein JM, Masterman DL, et al. Clinical characteristics in early Parkinson’s disease in a central California population-based study. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 1133-42.
  • 6. Ouchi Y, Kanno T, Okada H, et al. Changes in dopamine availability in the nigrostriatal and mesocor- tical dopaminergic systems by gait in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2001; 124: 784-92.
  • 7. Amboni M, Barone P, Picillo M, et al. A two-year follow-up study of executive dysfunctions in parkinsonian patients with freezing of gait at on-state. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 800-2.
  • 8. Hausdorff JM, Doniger GM, Springer S, et al. A common cognitive profile in elderly fallers and in patients with Parkinson’s disease: the prominence of impaired executive function and attention. Exp Aging Res 2006; 32: 411-29.
  • 9. Herman T, Weiss A, Brozgol M, et al. Identifying axial and cognitive correlates in patients with Parkinson’s disease motor subtype using the instrumented Timed Up and Go. Exp Brain Res 2014; 232: 713-21.
  • 10. Lord S, Rochester L, Hetherington V, et al. Executive dysfunction and attention contribute to gait interference in ‘off’ state Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture 2010; 31: 169-74.
  • 11. Yogev-Seligmann G, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. The role of executive function and attention in gait. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 329-42.
  • 12. Litvan I, Goldman JG, Troster AI, et al. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 349-56.
  • 13. Giladi N, Balash J. Paroxysmal locomotion gait disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Neurochir Pol 2001; 35(Suppl. 3): 57-63.
  • 14. Giladi N, Hausdorff JM, Balash Y. Episodic and continuous gait disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. In: Galvez-Jimenez N (ed.) Scientific basis for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, 2nd edn. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005; pp. 321-2.
  • 15. Giladi N, Horak FB, Hausdorff JM. Classification of gait disturbances: distinguishing between continuous and episodic changes. Mov Disord 2013; 28: 1469-73.
  • 16. Bloem BR, Grimbergen YA, Cramer M, et al. Prospective assessment of falls in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 2001; 248: 950-8.
  • 17. Gray P, Hildebrand K. Fall risk factors in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosci Nurs 2000; 32: 222-8.
  • 18. Ashburn A, Stack E, Pickering RM, et al. A community-dwelling sample of people with Parkinson’s disease: characteristics of fallers and non-fallers. Age Ageing 2001; 30: 47-52.
  • 19. Koller WC, Glatt S, Vetere-Overfield B, et al. Falls and Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 1989; 12: 98-105.
  • 20. Wood BH, Bilclough JA, Bowron A, et al. Incidence and prediction of falls in Parkinson’s disease: a prospective multidisciplinary study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72: 721-5.
  • 21. Hely MA, Reid WG, Adena MA, et al. The Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson’s disease: the inevitability of dementia at 20 years. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 837-44.
  • 22. Kerr GK, Worringham CJ, Cole MH, et al. Predictors of future falls in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 116-24.
  • 23. Ebersbach G, Sojer M, Valldeoriola F, et al. Comparative analysis of gait in Parkinson’s disease, cerebellar ataxia and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Brain 1999; 122: 1349-55.
  • 24. Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, et al. Stride length regulation in Parkinson’s disease. Normalization strategies and underlying mechanisms. Brain 1996; 119: 551-68.
  • 25. Morris ME, Huxham FE, McGinley J, et al. Gait disorders and gait rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease. Adv Neurol 2001; 87: 347-61.
  • 26. Blin O, Ferrandez AM, Serratrice G. Quantitative analysis of gait in Parkinson patients: increased variability of stride length. J Neurol Sci 1990; 98: 91-7.
  • 27. Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1050-6.
  • 28. Schaafsma JD, Giladi N, Balash Y, et al. Gait dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: relationship to Parkinsonian features, falls and response to levodopa. J Neurol Sci 2003; 212: 47-53.
  • 29. Yogev G, Giladi N, Peretz C, et al. Dual tasking, gait rhythmicity, and Parkinson’s disease: which aspects of gait are attention demanding? Eur J Neurosci 2005; 22: 1248-56.
  • 30. Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, et al. Ability to modulate walking cadence remains intact in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994; 57: 1532-4.
  • 31. Plotnik M, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. A new measure for quantifying the bilateral coordination of human gait: effects of aging and Parkinson’s disease. Exp Brain Res 2007; 181: 561-70.
  • 32. Baltadjieva R, Giladi N, Gruendlinger L, et al. Marked alterations in the gait timing and rhythmicity of patients with de novo Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci 2006; 24: 1815-20.
  • 33. Frenkel-Toledo S, Giladi N, Peretz C, et al. Treadmill walking as an external pacemaker to improve gait rhythm and stability in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 1109-14.
  • 34. Hausdorff JM, Cudkowicz ME, Firtion R, et al. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to- stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 428-37.
  • 35. Martin KL, Blizzard L, Wood AG, et al. Cognitive function, gait, and gait variability in older people: a population-based study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2013; 68: 726-32.
  • 36. Muir SW, Gopaul K, Montero Odasso MM. The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2012; 41: 299-308.
  • 37. Theill N, Martin M, Schumacher V, et al. Simultaneously measuring gait and cognitive performance in cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired older adults: the Basel motor-cognition dual-task paradigm. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59: 1012-18.
  • 38. Sheridan PL, Solomont J, Kowall N, et al. Influence of executive function on locomotor function: divided attention increases gait variability in Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1633-7.
  • 39. Montero-Odasso M, Muir SW, Speechley M. Dual-task complexity affects gait in people with mild cognitive impairment: the interplay between gait variability, dual tasking, and risk of falls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012; 93: 293-9.
  • 40. Muir SW, Speechley M, Wells J, et al. Gait assessment in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: the effect of dual-task challenges across the cognitive spectrum. Gait Posture 2012; 35: 96-100.
  • 41. Hausdorff JM. Gait dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling. Chaos 2009; 19: 026113.
  • 42. Plotnik M, Giladi N, Dagan Y, et al. Postural instability and fall risk in Parkinson’s disease: impaired dual tasking, pacing, and bilateral coordination of gait during the ‘ON’ medication state. Exp Brain Res 2011; 210: 529-38.
  • 43. Plotnik M, Dagan Y, Gurevich T, et al. Effects of cognitive function on gait and dual tasking abilities in patients with Parkinson’s disease suffering from motor response fluctuations. Exp Brain Res 2011; 208: 169-79.
  • 44. Bloem BR, Valkenburg VV, Slabbekoorn M, et al. The multiple tasks test. Strategies in Parkinson’s disease. Exp Brain Res 2001; 137: 478-86.
  • 45. Yogev-Seligmann G, Rotem-Galili Y, Dickstein R, et al. Effects of explicit prioritization on dual task walking in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture 2012; 35: 641-6.
  • 46. Yogev-Seligmann G, Giladi N, Gruendlinger L, et al. The contribution of postural control and bilateral coordination to the impact of dual tasking on gait. Exp Brain Res 2013; 226: 81-93.
  • 47. Rochester L, Nieuwboer A, Baker K, et al. Walking speed during single and dual tasks in Parkinson’s disease: which characteristics are important? Mov Disord 2008; 23: 2312-18.
  • 48. Al-Yahya E, Dawes H, Smith L, et al. Cognitive motor interference while walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011; 35: 715-28.
  • 49. Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Dubost V, et al. Stops walking when talking: a predictor of falls in older adults? Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 786-95.
  • 50. Smulders K, Esselink RA, Weiss A, et al. Assessment of dual tasking has no clinical value for fall prediction in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 2012; 259: 1840-7.
  • 51. Naismith SL, Shine JM, Lewis SJ. The specific contributions of set-shifting to freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 1000-4.
  • 52. Nantel J, McDonald JC, Tan S, et al. Deficits in visuospatial processing contribute to quantitative measures of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience 2012; 221: 151-6.
  • 53. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Anderson SW, et al. Visual dysfunction in Parkinson disease without dementia. Neurology 2005; 65: 1907-13.
  • 54. Amboni M, Barone P, Iuppariello L, et al. Gait patterns in Parkinsonian patients with or without mild cognitive impairment. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 1536-43.
  • 55. Domellof ME, Elgh E, Forsgren L. The relation between cognition and motor dysfunction in drug- naive newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 2183-9.
  • 56. Galna B, Lord S, Daud D, et al. Visual sampling during walking in people with Parkinson’s disease and the influence of environment and dual-task. Brain Res 2012; 1473: 35-43.
  • 57. Amboni M, Barone P, Hausdorff JM. Cognitive contributions to gait and falls: evidence and implications. Mov Disord 2013; 28: 1520-33.
  • 58. Adkin AL, Frank JS, Jog MS. Fear of falling and postural control in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 496-502.
  • 59. Schrag A, Jahanshahi M, Quinn NP. What contributes to depression in Parkinson’s disease? Psychol Med 2001; 31: 65-73.
  • 60. Chapuis S, Ouchchane L, Metz O, et al. Impact of the motor complications of Parkinson’s disease on the quality of life. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 224-30.
  • 61. Faulkner KA, Redfern MS, Cauley JA, et al. Multitasking: association between poorer performance and a history of recurrent falls. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 570-6.
  • 62. Verghese J, Buschke H, Viola L, et al. Validity of divided attention tasks in predicting falls in older individuals: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 1572-6.
  • 63. Zijlstra A, Ufkes T, Skelton DA, et al. Do dual tasks have an added value over single tasks for balance assessment in fall prevention programs? A mini-review. Gerontology 2008; 54: 40-9.
  • 64. O’Shea S, Morris ME, Iansek R. Dual task interference during gait in people with Parkinson disease: effects of motor versus cognitive secondary tasks. Phys Ther 2002; 82: 888-97.
  • 65. Bond JM, Morris M. Goal-directed secondary motor tasks: their effects on gait in subjects with Parkinson disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 110-16.
  • 66. Allcock LM, Rowan EN, Steen IN, et al. Impaired attention predicts falling in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15: 110-15.
  • 67. Fahn S. The freezing phenomenon in parkinsonism. Adv Neurol 1995; 67: 53-63.
  • 68. Giladi N. Freezing of gait. Clinical overview. Adv Neurol 2001; 87: 191-7.
  • 69. Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. The role of mental function in the pathogenesis of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2006; 248: 173-6.
  • 70. Giladi N, McDermott MP, Fahn S, et al. Freezing of gait in PD: prospective assessment in the DATA- TOP cohort. Neurology 2001; 56: 1712-21.
  • 71. Lamberti P, Armenise S, Castaldo V, et al. Freezing gait in Parkinson’s disease. Eur Neurol 1997; 38: 297-301.
  • 72. Amboni M, Cozzolino A, Longo K, et al. Freezing of gait and executive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 395-400.
  • 73. Shine JM, Matar E, Ward PB, et al. Differential neural activation patterns in patients with Parkinson’s disease and freezing of gait in response to concurrent cognitive and motor load. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e52602.
  • 74. Kostic VS, Agosta F, Pievani M, et al. Pattern of brain tissue loss associated with freezing of gait in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2012; 78: 409-16.
  • 75. Tessitore A, Amboni M, Esposito F, et al. Resting-state brain connectivity in patients with Parkinson’s disease and freezing of gait. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012; 18: 781-7.
  • 76. Herman T, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. Neuroimaging as a window into gait disturbances and freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2013; 13: 411.
  • 77. Dubois B, Pillon B. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 1997; 244: 2-8.
  • 78. Goldman JG, Litvan I. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Minerva Med 2011; 102: 441-59.
  • 79. Palavra NC, Naismith SL, Lewis SJ. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: a review of current concepts. Neurol Res Int 2013; 2013: 576091.
  • 80. Aarsland D, Bronnick K, Larsen JP, et al. Cognitive impairment in incident, untreated Parkinson disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study. Neurology 2009; 72: 1121-6.
  • 81. Elgh E, Domellof M, Linder J, et al. Cognitive function in early Parkinson’s disease: a population- based study. Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 1278-84.
  • 82. Muslimovic D, Post B, Speelman JD, et al. Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease. Neurology 2005; 65: 1239-45.
  • 83. Muslimovic D, Schmand B, Speelman JD, et al. Course of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2007; 13: 920-32.
  • 84. Burn DJ, Rowan EN, Allan LM, et al. Motor subtype and cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77: 585-9.
  • 85. Sollinger AB, Goldstein FC, Lah JJ, et al. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: subtypes and motor characteristics. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2010; 16: 177-80.
  • 86. Taylor JP, Rowan EN, Lett D, et al. Poor attentional function predicts cognitive decline in patients with non-demented Parkinson’s disease independent of motor phenotype. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 1318-23.
  • 87. Uc EY, McDermott MP, Marder KS, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for cognitive impairment in an early Parkinson disease clinical trial cohort. Neurology 2009; 73: 1469-77.
  • 88. Poletti M, Frosini D, Pagni C, et al. Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive-motor relationships in newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012; 83: 601-6.
  • 89. Caballol N, Marti MJ, Tolosa E. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22(Suppl. 17): S358-S366.
  • 90. Goethals I, Audenaert K, Van de WC, et al. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2004; 31: 408-16.
  • 91. Lezak M. Executive function. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
  • 92. Stuss DT, Bisschop SM, Alexander MP, et al. The Trail Making Test: a study in focal lesion patients. Psychol Assess 2001; 13: 230-9.
  • 93. Nieoullon A. Dopamine and the regulation of cognition and attention. Prog Neurobiol 2002; 67:
  • 53-83.
  • 94. Stam CJ, Visser SL, Op de Coul AA, et al. Disturbed frontal regulation of attention in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1993; 116: 1139-58.
  • 95. Della Sala S, Baddeley A, Papagno C, et al. Dual-task paradigm: a means to examine the central executive. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995; 769: 161-71.
  • 96. Szameitat AJ, Schubert T, Muller K, et al. Localization of executive functions in dual-task performance with fMRI. J Cogn Neurosci 2002; 14: 1184-99.
  • 97. Pashler H. Dual-task interference in simple tasks: data and theory. Psychol Bull 1994; 116: 220-44.
  • 98. Hausdorff JM, Balash J, Giladi N. Effects of cognitive challenge on gait variability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2003; 16: 53-8.
  • 99. Yogev G, Plotnik M, Peretz C, et al. Gait asymmetry in patients with Parkinson’s disease and elderly fallers: when does the bilateral coordination of gait require attention? Exp Brain Res 2007; 177: 336-46.
  • 100. Plotnik M, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. Bilateral coordination of gait and Parkinson’s disease: the effects of dual tasking. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 347-50.
  • 101. Camicioli R, Howieson D, Lehman S, et al. Talking while walking: the effect of a dual task in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1997; 48: 955-8.
  • 102. Camicioli R, Oken BS, Sexton G, et al. Verbal fluency task affects gait in Parkinson’s disease with motor freezing. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1998; 11: 181-5.
  • 103. Spildooren J, Vercruysse S, Desloovere K, et al. Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: the impact of dual-tasking and turning. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2563-70.
  • 104. Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Lecordroch Y, et al. Walking speed-related changes in stride time variability: effects of decreased speed. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2009; 6: 32.
  • 105. Alexander NB, Hausdorff JM. Guest editorial: linking thinking, walking, and falling. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008; 63: 1325-8.
  • 106. Hausdorff JM, Yogev G, Springer S, et al. Walking is more like catching than tapping: gait in the elderly as a complex cognitive task. Exp Brain Res 2005; 164: 541-8.
  • 107. Hausdorff JM, Schweiger A, Herman T, et al. Dual-task decrements in gait: contributing factors among healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008; 63: 1335-43.
  • 108. Marquis S, Moore MM, Howieson DB, et al. Independent predictors of cognitive decline in healthy elderly persons. Arch Neurol 2002; 59: 601-6.
  • 109. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Hall CB, et al. Abnormality of gait as a predictor of non-Alzheimer’s dementia. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1761-8.
  • 110. Coppin AK, Shumway-Cook A, Saczynski JS, et al. Association of executive function and performance of dual-task physical tests among older adults: analyses from the InChianti study. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 619-24.
  • 111. Herman T, Mirelman A, Giladi N, et al. Executive control deficits as a prodrome to falls in healthy older adults: a prospective study linking thinking, walking, and falling. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65: 1086-92.
  • 112. Mirelman A, Herman T, Brozgol, M et al. Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e40297.
  • 113. Springer S, Giladi N, Peretz C, et al. Dual-tasking effects on gait variability: the role of aging, falls, and executive function. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 950-7.
  • 114. van Iersel MB, Kessels RP, Bloem BR, et al. Executive functions are associated with gait and balance in community-living elderly people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008; 63: 1344-9.
  • 115. Yogev-Seligmann G, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. Do we always prioritize balance when walking?

Towards an integrated model of task prioritization. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 765-70.

  • 116. Schwenk M, Zieschang T, Oster P, et al. Dual-task performances can be improved in patients with dementia: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2010; 74: 1961-8.
  • 117. Bloem BR, Grimbergen YA, van Dijk JG, et al. The ‘posture second’ strategy: a review of wrong priorities in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2006; 248: 196-204.
  • 118. Brown LA, de Bruin N, Doan JB, et al. Novel challenges to gait in Parkinson’s disease: the effect of concurrent music in single- and dual-task contexts. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90: 1578-83.
  • 119. Galletly R, Brauer SG. Does the type of concurrent task affect preferred and cued gait in people with Parkinson’s disease? Aust J Physiother 2005; 51: 175-80.
  • 120. Rochester L, Hetherington V, Jones D, et al. Attending to the task: interference effects of functional tasks on walking in Parkinson’s disease and the roles of cognition, depression, fatigue, and balance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 1578-85.
  • 121. Rubinstein TC, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. The power of cueing to circumvent dopamine deficits: a review of physical therapy treatment of gait disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2002; 17: 1148-60.
  • 122. Poldrack RA, Sabb FW, Foerde K, et al. The neural correlates of motor skill automaticity. J Neurosci 2005; 25: 5356-64.
  • 123. Wu T, Kansaku K, Hallett M. How self-initiated memorized movements become automatic: a functional MRI study. J Neurophysiol 2004; 91: 1690-8.
  • 124. Takakusaki K, Oohinata-Sugimoto J, Saitoh K, et al. Role of basal ganglia-brainstem systems in the control of postural muscle tone and locomotion. Prog Brain Res 2004; 143: 231-7.
  • 125. Brown RG, Marsden CD. Dual task performance and processing resources in normal subjects and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1991; 114: 215-31.
  • 126. Rowe J, Stephan KE, Friston K, et al. Attention to action in Parkinson’s disease: impaired effective connectivity among frontal cortical regions. Brain 2002; 125: 276-89.
  • 127. Uekermann J, Daum I, Bielawski M, et al. Differential executive control impairments in early Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 2004; 68: 39-51.
  • 128. Kelly VE, Eusterbrock AJ, Shumway-Cook A. A review of dual-task walking deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease: motor and cognitive contributions, mechanisms, and clinical implications. Parkinsons Dis 2012; 2012: 918719.
  • 129. Zgaljardic DJ, Borod JC, Foldi NS, et al. A review of the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of Parkinson’s disease: relationship to frontostriatal circuitry. Cogn Behav Neurol 2003; 16: 193-210.
  • 130. Zgaljardic DJ, Borod JC, Foldi NS, et al. An examination of executive dysfunction associated with frontostriatal circuitry in Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2006; 28: 1127-44.
  • 131. Doumas M, Smolders C, Krampe RT. Task prioritization in aging: effects of sensory information on concurrent posture and memory performance. Exp Brain Res 2008; 187: 275-81.
  • 132. Hirsch EC, Graybiel AM, Duyckaerts C, et al. Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 5976-80.
  • 133. Harati H, Barbelivien A, Cosquer B, et al. Selective cholinergic lesions in the rat nucleus basalis mag- nocellularis with limited damage in the medial septum specifically alter attention performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task. Neuroscience 2008; 153: 72-83.
  • 134. Sarter M, Gehring WJ, Kozak R. More attention must be paid: the neurobiology of attentional effort. Brain Res Rev 2006; 51: 145-60.
  • 135. Bohnen NI, Albin RL. The cholinergic system and Parkinson disease. Behav Brain Res 2011; 221: 564-73.
  • 136. Yarnall A, Rochester L, Burn DJ. The interplay of cholinergic function, attention, and falls in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 2496-503.
  • 137. Jenkinson N, Nandi D, Muthusamy K, et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 319-28.
  • 138. Bohnen NI, Muller ML, Koeppe RA, et al. History of falls in Parkinson disease is associated with reduced cholinergic activity. Neurology 2009; 73: 1670-6.
  • 139. Bohnen NI, Frey KA, Studenski S, et al. Gait speed in Parkinson disease correlates with cholinergic degeneration. Neurology 2013; 81: 1611-16.
  • 140. Muller ML, Bohnen NI. Cholinergic dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2013; 13: 377.
  • 141. Bohnen NI, Kaufer DI, Hendrickson R, et al. Cognitive correlates of cortical cholinergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonian dementia. J Neurol 2006; 253: 242-7.
  • 142. Kehagia AA, Barker RA, Robbins TW. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: the dual syndrome hypothesis. Neurodegener Dis 2013; 11: 79-92.
  • 143. Woollacott M, Shumway-Cook A. Attention and the control of posture and gait: a review of an emerging area of research. Gait Posture 2002; 16: 1-14.
  • 144. Dujardin K, Degreef JF, Rogelet P, et al. Impairment of the supervisory attentional system in early untreated patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 1999; 246: 783-8.
  • 145. Woodward TS, Bub DN, Hunter MA. Task switching deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease reflect depleted attentional resources. Neuropsychologia 2002; 40: 1948-55.
  • 146. Chung KA, Lobb BM, Nutt JG, et al. Effects of a central cholinesterase inhibitor on reducing falls in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 1263-9.
  • 147. Ensrud KE, Blackwell TL, Mangione CM, et al. Central nervous system-active medications and risk for falls in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 1629-37.
  • 148. Thapa PB, Gideon P, Cost TW, et al. Antidepressants and the risk of falls among nursing home residents. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 875-82.
  • 149. Ahlskog JE. Think before you leap: donepezil reduces falls? Neurology 2010; 75: 1226-7.
  • 150. Segev-Jacubovski O, Herman T, Yogev-Seligmann G, et al. The interplay between gait, falls and cognition: can cognitive therapy reduce fall risk? Expert Rev Neurother 2011; 11: 1057-75.
  • 151. Mirelman A, Maidan I, Herman T, et al. Virtual reality for gait training: can it induce motor learning to enhance complex walking and reduce fall risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66: 234-40.
  • 152. Silsupadol P, Shumway-Cook A, Lugade V, et al. Effects of single-task versus dual-task training on balance performance in older adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90: 381-7.
  • 153. Giladi N, Nieuwboer A. Understanding and treating freezing of gait in parkinsonism, proposed working definition, and setting the stage. Mov Disord 2008; 23(Suppl. 2): S423-S425.
  • 154. Moore O, Peretz C, Giladi N. Freezing of gait affects quality of life of peoples with Parkinson’s disease beyond its relationships with mobility and gait. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 2192-5.
  • 155. Nutt JG, Bloem BR, Giladi N, et al. Freezing of gait: moving forward on a mysterious clinical phenomenon. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 734-44.
  • 156. Plotnik M, Giladi N, Balash Y, et al. Is freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease related to asymmetric motor function? Ann Neurol 2005; 57: 656-63.
  • 157. Plotnik M, Hausdorff JM. The role of gait rhythmicity and bilateral coordination of stepping in the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23(Suppl. 2): S444-S450.
  • 158. Lieberman A. Are freezing of gait (FOG) and panic related? J Neurol Sci 2006; 248: 219-22.
  • 159. Hausdorff JM, Schaafsma JD, Balash Y, et al. Impaired regulation of stride variability in Parkinson’s disease subjects with freezing of gait. Exp Brain Res 2003; 149: 187-94.
  • 160. Willems AM, Nieuwboer A, Chavret, F et al. The use of rhythmic auditory cues to influence gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease, the differential effect for freezers and non-freezers, an explorative study. Disabil Rehabil 2006; 28: 721-8.
  • 161. Willems AM, Nieuwboer A, Chavret F, et al. Turning in Parkinson’s disease patients and controls: the effect of auditory cues. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1871-8.
  • 162. Weiss A, Gruendlinger L, Plotnik M, et al. Is turning during walking an automated motor task, or is it a complex cognitive action? Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 123.
  • 163. Mirelman A, Heman T, Yasinovsky K, et al. Fall risk and gait in Parkinson’s disease: the role of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. Mov Disord 2013; 28: 1683-90.
  • 164. Dagan Y, Plotnik M, Gruendlinger L, et al. Emotion, cognition, freezing of gait and dual tasking in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease: a volatile mixture. Mov Disord 2008; 23(Suppl. 1): S327.
  • 165 Devos D, Krystkowiak P, Clement F, et al. Improvement of gait by chronic, high doses of methylphen- idate in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 470-5.
  • 166. Galynker I, Ieronimo C, Miner C, et al. Methylphenidate treatment of negative symptoms in patients with dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 9: 231-9.
  • 167. Homsi J, Walsh D, Nelson KA, et al. Methylphenidate for depression in hospice practice: a case series. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2000; 17: 393-8.
  • 168. Whyte J, Hart T, Vaccaro M, et al. Effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 83: 401-20.
  • 169. Auriel E, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. Methylphenidate for the treatment of Parkinson disease and other neurological disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol 2009; 32: 75-81.
  • 170. Moreau C, Delval A, Defebvre L, et al. Methylphenidate for gait hypokinesia and freezing in patients with Parkinson’s disease undergoing subthalamic stimulation: a multicentre, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11: 589-96.
  • 171. Vale S. Current management of the cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: how far have we come? Exp Biol Med 2008; 233: 941-51.
  • 172. Auriel E, Hausdorff JM, Herman T, et al. Effects of methylphenidate on cognitive function and gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2006; 29: 15-17.
  • 173. Ben-Itzhak R, Giladi N, Gruendlinger L, et al. Can methylphenidate reduce fall risk in communityliving older adults? A double-blind, single-dose cross-over study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 695-700.
  • 174. Rochester L, Hetherington V, Jones D, et al. The effect of external rhythmic cues (auditory and visual) on walking during a functional task in homes of people with Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 999-1006.
  • 175. Holtzer R, Wang C, Lipton R, et al. The protective effects of executive functions and episodic memory on gait speed decline in aging defined in the context of cognitive reserve. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012; 60: 2093-8.
  • 176. Moreau C, Defebvre L, Bleuse S, et al. Externally provoked freezing of gait in open runways in advanced Parkinson’s disease results from motor and mental collapse. J Neural Transm 2008; 115: 1431-6.
  • 177. Plotnik M, Bartsch R, Yogev G, et al. Synchronization of right-left stepping while walking is compromised in patients with Parkinson’s disease during mental loading. Mov Disord 2006; 21: S592.
  • 178. Montero-Odasso M, Verghese J, Beauchet O, et al. Gait and cognition: a complementary approach to understanding brain function and the risk of falling. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012; 60: 2127-36.
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
Business & Finance
Computer Science
Language & Literature
Political science