Creating the Leadership Standard

The rest of the week disintegrated, then Monday suddenly appeared. Jonathan found himself sitting in Samuel’s office for the weekly mentoring session. He had spent all weekend researching leadership models.

“Here are three leadership standards I think we should consider,” said Jonathan, sliding a report across the table to Samuel. (These standards are summarized in Table 8-1.)

“Great work!” said Samuel. “I see common themes here concerning creating a vision, goal setting, communicating effectively, modeling expected behaviors, and providing encouragement and support for team members. I did a little homework myself. Take a look at this Harvard Business Review article.” Samuel gave Jonathan a copy of “How Google

Sold Its Engineers on Management,” which is summarized in Table 8-2.

Table 8-1 Leadership Model Summaries







Consists of 5 practices:

Model the Way. Leader is clear about own values; finds own voice and expresses it; sets personal example for others.

Inspire a Shared Vision. Create a compelling vision that guides people’s behavior; visualize and communicate positive outcomes;listen to and encourage the dreams of others.

Challenge the Process. Leader has the courage to change the status quo; leader experiments, takes risks, and learns from them.

Enable Others to Act. Leader builds trust with others and promotes collaboration; values teamwork and cooperation; treats others with dignity and respect; listens to diverse points of view.

Encourage the Heart. Reward and recognize others; use authentic celebrations to show appreciation and encouragement.




Consists of Directive behaviors: one-way communications about who, what, how, and when to perform tasks; and Supportive behaviors: two-way communications that show social and emotional support, solving problems through collaboration and information sharing. Consists of four categories of behaviors:

Style S1, Directive. High directive, low supportive. Leader focuses on goal achievement and less on supportive behaviors, giving instructions and supervising carefully.

Style S2, Coaching. High directive, high supportive. Leader focuses on goal achievement and meeting socioemotional needs. Leader makes decisions but solicits subordinate support.

Style S3, Supporting. High supportive, low directive. Leader brings out employee’s skills around required tasks. Leader asks for input, listens, praises, and provides feedback.

Style S4, Delegating. Low supportive, low directive. Leader offers less task input and social support. Leader is less involved in planning, control of details, and goal clarification.

There are four levels of development, D1 through D4, representing low development through high development for particular tasks. Leaders use Style S1 for D1 employees, S2 for D2, S3 for D3, and S4 for D4, depending on the situation.




Model provides the leader a mental road map that assists in diagnosing problems and taking the appropriate actions: Leadership decisions: Monitor situation or take action, task or relational response, internal or external leadership actions.

For Internal Task requirements, leaders focus on goals by clarifying, getting agreement, performing process improvement, guiding the decision-making process, and providing training.

For Internal Relationship requirements, leaders coach team members, collaborate with team members, manage conflict, build commitment and esprit de corps, model expected behavior.

For External Environmental requirements, leaders network to increase influence and gather information, advocate to represent the team, provide recognition, and share information.

Satisfying above requirements results in high performance through development and maintenance functions.

Data derived from Northouse, P. (2007). Leadership Theory and Practice. London: Sage.

“This article seems consistent with what I found,” said Jonathan. “Google runs on analytics, and they have the data to back up their findings.”

“OK, this works,” Samuel said. “I want to you write up a draft JTS leadership policy based on the Exemplary Leadership Model, which is really a Transformational Leadership

Model. Th is fits because we’re trying to transform our leadership culture, and we’ll do this through visioning, role modeling, and empowering. It’s not going to be easy, but it is necessary.”

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