Wheat Blast

Wheat Blast: A Global Threat to Wheat ProductionWhat Is Wheat Blast?Where Is it Present?PathogenWhy and How Can It Be a Global Threat?Favourable Climatic ConditionsPathogen is Evolving Fast and Evolving to Wide Spectrum Host–Pathogen Interactions and New HostsSexual Reproduction Evolves New StrainsEvolving to Be Tolerant to FungicidesHow Should the Disease Be Managed?Quarantine“Wheat Holiday”Disease ForecastingBreeding for ResistanceFungicide ApplicationCultural PracticesBiological ControlConclusion and Future OutlookReferencesPopulation Biology of Wheat Blast PathogenIntroductionWheat Blast Pathogen: Pyricularia graminis Triticum (Pygt) or Magnaporthe oryzae (=Pyricularia oryzae) pathotype Triticum (MoT)?Evolution and Expansion of Wheat BlastVirulence Spectrum of MoT FungusPopulation Structure and Pathotype DiversityConclusion and Future OutlookReferencesIdentification and Diagnosis of Wheat BlastIntroductionPhenotypic Identification of MoTSymptoms on Leaf and StemSymptoms on Spike and Wheat HeadSymptoms on Wheat AwnsSymptoms on Wheat Grains and SeedsMicroscopic Detection of MoTMolecular Diagnosis of MoTNucleic Acid BarcodesLoop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification AssayConclusion and Future OutlookReferencesIntroductionBlast CycleThe Life Cycle of MoTAdhesionPenetrationColonisationOther Aspects Related to the Infection Process of MoT on WheatReferencesIntroductionGenetic ResistanceBRS 209 × CBFusarium ENT014 Phenotypes of Reaction to Blast: A Case StudyMolecular Plant–Pathogen InteractionTranscriptomic ApproachFuture ProspectsAcknowledgementsReferencesEcology and Epidemiology of Wheat BlastIntroductionVariability of Magnaporthe SpeciesHost RangeDisease CyclePrimary and Secondary InoculumSources of InoculumSeed TransmissionCrop ResidueTransmission and SpreadFavourable ConditionsDisease Monitoring in the FieldDisease Forecasting ModellingEpidemiology and Host Resistance to Blast in Argentina: A Case StudyUpdate, Priorities and Progress in ArgentinaPathogen Phytotoxins as Agents of SpecificityReferencesEffect of Blast on Wheat PhysiologyIntroductionAlterations in the Photosynthetic Performance of Wheat Plants in Response to MoT InfectionControlled ConditionsField ConditionsMetabolism of Carbohydrates on Wheat Plants Infected by MoTAlterations on the Antioxidant System of Wheat Plants Infected by MoTReferencesScreening Wheat Germplasm for Blast Resistance Methods and ProtocolsIntroductionIsolation, Purification and Conservation of the FungusIsolationPurificationConservationFungal Sporulation and Production of InoculumSpore ProductionLarge-scale Inoculum ProductionImpact of Inoculum DosageInoculation Methodology and Environmental ConditionsEnvironmental ConditionsInoculation MethodologiesDisease ScoringScreening for Wheat Blast ResistanceAnticipatory Screening for Wheat BlastReferencesBreeding for Wheat Blast ResistanceIntroductionAvailable Resistance SourcesGenetic Basis of ResistanceNon-host Resistance Genes, Conferring Resistance to Non-MoT Isolates of Magnaporthe oryzaeHost Resistance Genes, Conferring Resistance to MoT IsolatesOpportunities Provided by Modern BiotechnologyConsortium for Wheat BlastCIMMYT’s Recent Efforts on WB Resistance Screening and BreedingFuture ProspectsReferencesIntegrated Management of Wheat Blast DiseaseIntroductionHost Range and Disease SeverityCultural ManagementElimination of Secondary Hosts and Grassy WeedsThe Use of Clean SeedDate of SeedingSeeding DensityVarietal DiversificationCrop RotationUtilisation of Resistant Cultivars and ChallengesGenetic Variability in Host and FungusSources of ResistanceExpediting Varietal DevelopmentChemical Control MeasuresSeed TreatmentAerial Application of Fungicides and Management of Resistance to FungicidesBiological Management of the DiseaseWeather-based Early Warning System for WB ControlTentative Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Module for Wheat BlastFuture Needs for ResearchReferencesIndex
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