Axial Regeneration in Segmented Animals: A Post-Embryonic Reboot of the Segmentation Process

Eduardo E. Zattara

CONTENTS

  • 10.1 Introduction..................................................................................................256
  • 10.2 The Phylogenetic Distribution of Regeneration............................................256
  • 10.3 Common Aspects of Animal Regeneration..................................................259
  • 10.3.1 Wound Healing.................................................................................260
  • 10.3.2 Cell Reorganization and Blastema Formation..................................261
  • 10.3.3 Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis..........................................262
  • 10.4 Regeneration in Annelids.............................................................................263
  • 10.4.1 Stages of Axial Regeneration...........................................................263
  • 10.4.2 Wound Healing.................................................................................265
  • 10.4.3 Cell Migration...................................................................................265
  • 10.4.4 Cell Proliferation..............................................................................268
  • 10.4.5 Cellular Sources and Development of the Blastema.........................269
  • 10.4.6 Neural Regeneration.........................................................................272
  • 10.4.7 Muscle Regeneration.........................................................................276
  • 10.4.8 Segmentation....................................................................................277
  • 10.4.8.1 Segmentation during Posterior Regeneration....................278
  • 10.4.8.2 Segmentation during Anterior Regeneration.....................283
  • 10.4.9 Morphallactic Processes...................................................................284
  • 10.5 Concluding Remarks....................................................................................285

Acknowledgments..................................................................................................286

References..............................................................................................................286

 
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