Index

p-catenin, 56, 62, 187, 190,281 4D-Nomarski microscopy, 195 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), 43-47,49

Acanthocephalans, 223,258 Acorn worms, see Hemichordates Actin-rich protrusions, 56 Aequorea Victoria, 187 Alina virens, 274-275, 279,281,285 Amoebocytes, 266 Animal regeneration, 256-286 in annelids, 263-285

cell migration, 265-266,268 cell proliferation, 268-269 cellular sources and blastema development, 269-271 morphal lactic processes, 284-285 muscle, 276-277 neural, 272-275 segmentation, 277-283 stages, 263-265 wound healing, 265 common aspects, 259-263

cell differentiation and morphogenesis, 262-263

cell reorganization and blastema formation, 261-262 wound healing, 260-261 overview, 256

phylogenetic distribution, 256-259 Annelida, 71-93,259 development, 75-82

early embryonic, 76, 78 trochophore larvae and direct, 78-79, 81-82

evolution, 92-93 overview, 71,73 segmentation in, 73-75 live imaging, 194 molecular basis, 90-92 trunk, 82-90

Anterodorsal blastemal cells, 270-271 Aphidicolin, 51 Arachnids, 29 Archimetamerism, 13 Architomic fission, 73 Armadillo/p-catenin, 56,62 Arrow worms, see Chaetognatha Arthropod segmentation, 28,40-65,54, 55, 74.75

and elongation, 40-41

live imaging, 194-198 role of cell division, 41-54 anterior growth zone, 53-54 case studies, 41-52 in growth zone and trunk, 54 low cell division in posterior, 52-53 role of cell rearrangement, 54-63 from diverse taxa, 55-56 elongation in Drosophila, 56-58 Tribolium model, 58-63 synchronizing cell division, rearrangements, and fate, 63-64

Asthetik der Tierwelt (Aesthetics of the Animal World). 6 Axin2 line, 190 Azakenpaullone, 283

Bandlets, 90. 160-162. 164. 166. 168, 175 Barbus conchonius, 184 Basolateral interdigitation, 59 Bazooka/PAR-3,56, 62 bHLH transcription factors, 102, 107, 110 Bilaterian segmentation, 206-236 definition, 207-208 Deuterostomia, 209-214 Cephalochordata, 213 Echinodermata, 212-213 Hemichordata, 209,211-212 Tunicata, 213-214 Ecdysozoa, 214-220 Kinorhyncha, 217-218 Loricifera, 218 Nematoda, 214-216 Nematomorpha, 216 Onychophora, 219-220 Priapulida, 216-217 Tardigrada, 218-219 overview, 206-207 Spiralia, 221-232

Brachiopoda, 231-232 Bryozoa, 232 Chaetognatha, 221 Gastrotricha, 224 Micrognathozoa, 223-224 Mollusca, 227, 229-231 Nemertea, 226-227 Phoronida, 232 Platyhelminthes, 224-226 Rotifera, 221-223 Xenacoelomorpha, 208-209 Bioluminescent activity, 187

Bipolar basal cell protrusions, 55, 56 Blastema, 276-277,283

cellular sources and development, 269-271 formation and differentiation, 261-265, 269, 275,278,279, 284, 286 tissues, 274

Blastoderm, 56, 59, 61-64

evidence for specification, 48 formation, 195, 198 syncytial, 173 Tribolium, 58

Blastomeres, 76, 78,79, 83-84, 88. 158, 161,

174. 229

BMP signaling, 103, 109-110, 165, 168, 176 Bombyx, 55,64

Boundary-driven segmentation, 82-84, 87,93, 157-158

Brachiopods, 231-232,258-259 Brachyurygene, 103, 105-107, 111, 113, 115 Bryozoa, 232, 258 Budding zone, 5, 9, 18, 19

Caenorhabditis elegans, 166, 214, 215 Capilella lelela. 75, 83, 84, 87-88, 161,268, 274, 279,281,285 Cartilaginous bars, 213 Caudal papilla, 128, 130 CDC42 activity, 166 Cdx2 expression, 106 Cdx/Wnt signaling, 63-64 Cell division vs. cell rearrangement, 40-41 Cell lineage markers, 83

Cell proliferation, 31,54,82,87, 160-161, 188,221, 261,264-265,268-269,275,278-281 Central nervous system (CNS), 13,272,274 Cephalochordates, 19, 28,211,213,258 Chaetognatha, 221,232 Cherax destructor, 137, 144, 145 Chitons, 207, 229,231-232, 235,236 Cholinergic neurons, 213 Chordata, 74,75

Circular musculature, 213, 216-217,221,226, 235-236

Cleavage, 48,75, 168, 170, 174 differential, 135, 141 patterns, 78, 82, 83, 130, 145 spiral, 76, 158

Clitellates, 10, 28, 30-32, 73,75, 82-85, 88,90, 93, 126, 144, 155, 158-159, 161, 166, 169, 172,268, 274,279, 280, 283, 284 Clock and scaled gradient model, 109 Clock oscillation synchrony, 112-113 CNS, see Central nervous system Cockroach, see Periplaneta americana Coelomic pouches and cavities, 17,28, 71,211, 213,218, 231,266,275 Coelom theory, 4

Corm/fission theory, 11, 13 Craniata, 258,259 Crispr-CAS9 gene editing, 90 Cropceca, 170 Crustaceans, 29, 125-146

cell lineage and cell fate, 143-145 cell shapes and behavior, 139-141 germ disc formation, 126, 128 germ layers hierarchy, 141 growth, 130, 132-133, 135-137 homology issues, 145-146 overview, 125-126 segmentation, 141-142 segment morphogenesis, 142-143 shape, 128, 130

short and long germ development. 142 stereotyped division pattern, 137-139 Cyclin D, 51

cyp26al enzyme, 106, 109

DAPI staining, 44,49 DE-cadherin, 56,62 Deltal/Dlll protein, 106, 189 Desmoscolecida, 215 Deutometamere, 13, 15 Deuterostomia, 209-214,258 Cephalochordates, 213 Echinoderms, 212-213 Hemichordates, 209, 211-212 Tunicates, 213-214 Diastylis rathkei, 137

Differential interference contrast (DIC), 184 Dil (carbocyanine dye), 270 Diplopods, 19

Dissepimentary cells, see Neoblasts Dlll-luciferase fusion protein, 189 DMZ, see Dorsal medial zone DNAse I enzyme, 175 Doppler effect, 189 Dorsal medial zone (DMZ), 193 Drosophila sp., 30,40,44, 51, 54-55, 59-62,65, 75. 136. 171-173. 176 cell elongation in, 56-58

intra- and intercellular effectors, 56 junctional remodeling, 56 pair-rule genes, 57-58 D. melanogaster, 9, 10, 29 segmentation gene homologs, 167-168

Ecdysozoa, 214-220,258 Kinorhyncha, 217-218 Loricifera, 218 Nematoda, 214-216 Nematomorpha, 216 Onychophora, 219-220 Priapulida, 216-217 Tardigrade, 218-219

Echinoderes kozloffi, 217 Echinoderms, 3,212-213,258,285 Ectoderm segments/segmentation, 81-82, 85,87, 88, 128, 174

Ectoteloblasts, 31, 32, 52, 79, 85,90, 126,

  • 130, 132-133, 135, 137, 139, 141,
  • 145, 146, 174

EdU, see 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine Eleocytes, 266

Embryogenesis, 28-29,40,46,48, 82, 110, 115, 169, 196, 206, 217-219, 224-225,229, 259,261-263,285-286

Embryonic/post-embryonic segmentation, 28-29, 90,93, 169

EMT, see Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition Enchytraeus sp., 279 E.japonensis, 284

Endodermal cells, 74, 85,90, 126, 128, 155, 170, 173-175,214,268-270,279 Engrailed gene, 18, 142-145, 167,212,219-220, 229-231,269,281,283 Enterocoel theory, 13

Epidermal cells, 48,73, 162, 165,211,214,218, 223, 227,235,264, 265, 270,273,

274,276

Epimorphic processes, 142, 261, 262,285 Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), 107-108, 110, 111 Errantia, 73, 274 Euperipatoides rowelli, 52 Eurythoe, 277

Even-skipped/eve expression, 47, 57,91, 167, 195, 269,279

Extraembryonic region, 126, 128

FACS, see Fluorescence activated cell sorting F-actin, 56, 62, 198, 236,276-277 Fernandez, Juan, 154

Fgf signaling, 64, 102, 105, 107-111, 185-186, 192-193, 199

Flatworms, see Platyhelminthes Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS),

190, 192

Fluorescent emission, 187 Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI), 194 Free-living flatworms, 225 FUCCI, see Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator Fuxianhuia, 29

GABAergic/glycinergic neurons, 213

GAP43-YFPJ98

Gastrotricha, 224, 258

gbx gene, 229-230

Gegenbaur, Carl, 11

Gene editing techniques, 90

Geophilomorphs, 29, 31 Germ band, 10,90, 125, 126, 136, 139, 141 differentiation, 142, 146 elongation, 9,56, 57, 133, 142 growth, 130, 132-133, 135-136, 138, 146 malacostracan, 138-140, 141-143, 145 mesodermal, 89-90 shape, 128, 130

Germinal band, 160, 166-168, 171, 173 Germinal plate, 160, 162, 167-168, 171, 173 Germline multipotency program (GMP), 269-270,279, 281,283 GFP, see Green fluorescent protein Gill slits, 209,211,213,214 Girdle wearers, see Loricifera Glossiphoniid leeches, 154, 162, 171 GMP, see Germline multipotency program Gnathifera, 223,258 Grandparental divisions, 165 Grandparental lineages, 168 in Helobdella, 169 stem cell, 165-166, 176 teloblast, 167

Green fluorescent protein (GFP), 187, 193, 195 Growth zone, see Segment addition zone Gryllus bimaculatus, 195 GSK3beta enzyme, 281,283 Gutmann, Wolfgang Friedrich, 11

Haeckel, Ernst, 11

Haementeria ghilianii, 162

Hairybacks, see Gastrotricha

Hairy-based clock, 30

Hatschek, Berthold, 11

Hedgehog gene, 91, 167, 195, 220,231,281

Helicomerism, 20

Helobdella, 91, 153-176

axial growth and patterning, 159-161 axial posterior growth zone (PGZ), 158 body plan, 155

boundary-driven vs. lineage-driven, 155, 157-158

counting problem, 172-173 Drosophila segmentation gene homologs, 167-168

ectodermal lineages, 162 genesis of endoderm, 173-174 grandparental stem cell lineages, 165-166 H. austinensis, 154, 169 //. robusta, 280

kinship groups and cell clones, 162-164 mesoderm as primary driver, 174-175 M teloblasts evolution, 161-162 О-P equivalence group, 164-165 overview, 153-155

regional and segment-specific differences, 170-172

spatial and temporal registration of blast cells, 168-169

Hemichordates, 115, 209, 211-212, 258 Hepatic saccules, 211 Herl.herl-venus line, 186, 188 HerlHes genes, 102, 107, 111, 167, 188, 199 Hesl gene, 186, 187 Hes7 expression, 107, 185, 188 Hirudo, 154

HistoneH2A-mCherry, 194 Horsehair worms, see Nematomorpha Horseshoe worms, see Phoronida HoxBIJ mutant, 114

Hox genes, 10, 110-111, 114, 170-172,219,

269, 285

Hyaline amoebocyte, 266 Hydroides elegans, 93 Hydroskeleton theory, 11, 13 Hydroxyurea, 51

ID1 HLH protein. 110 Indirect developers, 75 In situ mRNA hybridization assays, 91,279 Interstitial neural progenitor mode, 225 Intracellular effector molecules, 57-58 Intracellular myosin localization, 65

Junctional remodeling, 55, 56, 59,62

Kinorhynchs. 206. 217-218, 235 Kuffler, Stephen, 154

Lamp shells, see Brachiopoda Lancelets/amphioxus, see Cephalochordates Lang, Arnold, 11 LAN-GFP line, 196, 198 Lecithotrophic larvae, 73, 81 Leeches, see Helobdella segmentation Leucine-rich receptors, 58, 65 Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), 196

Limnognathia maerski, 223-224 Lineage-driven segmentation, 83, 84, 90,93, 158, 163, 164

Lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, 62 Live imaging and segmentation, 183-200 annelid, 194 arthropod, 194-198 overview, 183 vertebrates, 184-194 cell dynamics, 184-186 clock and wavefront model, 186-192 migratory behavior of presomitic mesoderm cells, 192-194 Long germ development, 142 Lophotrochozoa, 74, 153, 154, 158, 168, 171,258 Loricifera, 218 lox3 expression, 175

LSFM, see Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy

Lumbriculus variegatus, 284 Lumbricus terrestris, 172 Lunatic fringe/Lfng promoter region, 187 LuVeLu transgenic mouse, 187, 189-191

Malacostracan crustaceans, 10, 30-32,41, 126, 128, 130, 135, 137, 139-143, 145-146, 158, 195

Mapk/Erk pathway, 193 Meinhardt, Hans, 11 Mesoderm axial, 100 lineages, 164, 171 paraxial, 99, 102, 104, 109, 192 presomitic, 28,64, 102, 106-109, 111, 113, 116, 184-189, 192-194 progenitors, 100, 102, 109, 111-114, 116,219 segments/segmentation, 82, 85, 107-109, 140, 164, 194

Mesoderm Posterior 2/Mesp2, 185-186, 190 Mesoteloblasts, 31,32,79, 83, 84, 86, 88, 90,

92, 126, 130, 133, 136, 137, 140, 141, 144, 161

Metamerism, 73-74, 82, 153, 174 Metatroch, 28,79 Micrognathozoa, 223-224 Millipedes, 6,29, 143,206 Mitosis, 43-44,49, 52-53,85, 87, 140, 159, 165, 167, 171, 188,281 Mitraria, 84-85

Mollusca, 171, 227, 229-231, 258,259 Monolayer culture of PSM cells (mPSM),

189-191

Monoplacophora, 227,229 Morphallactic processes, 261, 262, 284-285 Morphogenetic processes, 5. 8-9, 173, 192,262, 285-286

Moss animals, see Bryozoa

mPSM, see Monolayer culture of PSM cells

Mud dragons, see Kinorhyncha

Myosin, 58,65

Myosin II, 56,62

Myriapods, 19,21,29, 130, 138

Nanos expression, 168, 269, 279 Nasonia, 54

Naupliar segments, 29, 137, 141, 195

Nectochaete larva, 28

Nectochaete segments, 29

Nematoda, 74, 207, 214-216, 235, 236,258

Nematomorpha, 216,232

Nemertea, 76, 207, 226-227,235,258-259,285

Nemertodermatids, 208, 209

Neoblasts, 225,266,268

Nephridiopores, 229

Nephrozoa, 16

Neurites, 217,264,273-275

Neuroblasts, 125, 126

Neurogenesis, 125, 167, 212, 275,281

Neurogenin/ngn, 275,279

Neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs), 32,

102- 103, 110

affecting segment number and body length, 113-115

В rachy и ry gene, 105-107 as cellular source, 102-103 existence, 115-116

induction of paraxial/somite fate, 109-110 somites along anterior-posterior axis,

103- 104

stem cells, 104-105 Neurotroch, 79

N1CD, see Notch intracellular domain Nicholls, John, 154 nlsRFP mRNA, 193

NMPs, see Neuromesodermal progenitors Non-clitellate annelids, 31, 83, 268 Non-malacostracan crustaceans, 130, 137 Notch 1 activity, 185

Notch/Delta signaling, 30, 111-113, 188, 189, 191 Notch expression, 91-92 Notch intracellular domain (NICD), 113 Notostraca, 19

Oct4 transcription factor expression, 114 Oligochaetes, 73, 126, 155, 162, 166, 169,

172.173

O-lineage neurons, 164 Oncopeltus sp., 30,47-48, 53,54,63 anterior growth zone, 47 blastoderm specification, 48 cell cycling and gene expression patterns, 47-48

O.fasciatus, 31,46 posterior cell division, 46-47 Onychophora, 15, 74,219-220 optix/six3 gene, 270 Orthogon, 225 Owenia sp.

O. collaris, 84 O.fusiformis, 84, 85

Pair-rule genes. 10. 30. 51. 53, 57-58. 60-61. 63, 65. 167. 168. 195 Panarthropoda, 259

Pancrustacea/Tetraconata, see Crustaceans Parasteatoda tepidariorum, 63, 116, 195, 199 Paratomic fission, 73 Parhyale hawaiensis, 136, 195 pax2/5/8 gene, 229-231 рахб transcription factor, 275

PCNA, see Proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCP, see Planar cell polarity signaling Pdu-Hes5. 92

Penis worms, see Priapulida Peptidergic neurons, 171 Perinereis nuntia, 281,283 Peripheral nervous system, 100,214,217,220. 273,274

Periplaneta americana, 52 Peristomium, 264, 274,278,283 PGZ, see Posterior growth zone Phalloidin, 276, 211 Phoronida, 232, 258,259 Phosphorylated histones, 268 Placozoa, 258

Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, 55-56, 62 Planarian nervous system, 225 Planktotrophic larvae, 73,79 Platyhelminthes, 224-226, 235, 258 Platynereis dumerilii, 28,75, 83-87,91,93, 110, 194, 274, 275,277,279,281 Polychaetes, 73, 83, 84, 155, 161,171, 194 Polyplacophora. 227, 229 PorceUio scaber, 194 Post-embryonic development, 75, 173, 259 Posterior growth zone (PGZ), 42-43,75-76, 79,87,92, 158, 161, 168, 174, 176, 279, 281

Post-naupliar segments, 137, 142, 195 prdm3/16 transcription factors, 281 Presomitic mesoderm (PSM), 28,64, 102, 106-109, 111, 113, 116, 184-189, 192-194

Priapulida, 216-218,235,236 Priapulus caudatus, 216 Pristina leidyi, 194, 266, 270, 273, 283, 284 Progenitor zone (PZ), 193 Proglottids, 5, 225, 226, 236 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), 268 Prostomium, 18,79,263, 264,270, 274,278,283 Protonephridia, 224,227 Prototroch, 78, 79, 88 Pseudometameres, 5 PSM, see Presomitic mesoderm Pygidium, 18, 79, 84,263-264,274, 275, 277-279, 281 PZ, see Progenitor zone

RA, see Retinoic acid Reepithelialization process, 265 Remane, Adolf, 13

Retinoic acid (RA), 64, 106, 107, 109, 111 Retrospective lineage analysis, 102-103 Ribbon worms, see Nemertea Ribonucleotide reductase, 51 Ries, Julius, 183 Rotifers, 221-223,235,258

Round worms, see Nematoda Rouphozoa, 258

Sabella pavonina, 284 Saccoglossus kowalevskii. 115 Salps, see Tunicates Sarcolytes, 266 Sawyer, Roy, 154 SAZ, see Segment addition zone Sea squirts, see Tunicates Sea stars, see Echinoderms Sea urchins, see Echinoderms Sedentaria, 73,274

Segment addition zone (SAZ), 28,41,49,75, 161, 194, 195, 198, 199,280-281 Segmentation; see also individual titles during animal regeneration, 277-283 anterior, 283 posterior, 278-283 diversity in mechanisms, 27-33 commonalities, 32-33 cyclical processes, 29-30 embryonic/post-embryonic segmentation, 28-29

overview, 27-28

proliferation vs. cell rearrangement,

30-31

simultaneous/sequential segmentation, 29 types of cells, 31-32 live imaging, 183-200 annelid, 194 arthropod, 194-198 overview, 183 vertebrates, 184-194 and seriality, 3-22 criticism, 21-22 description, 6-8 development, 16 ontogeny, 8-10 overview, 3-6 pattern, 20-21

spatial and differential units, 19 structural and ontogenetic definitions, 17-19

theories on evolution, 10-11, 13, 15-16 Serotonergic neurons, 213 Sheath cells, 100 Short germ development, 142 Simultaneous/sequential segmentation, 10,29, 40,43,48, 184 annelid, 194 arthropod, 194-198 in vertebrates, 184-194 cell dynamics, 184-186 clock and wavefront model, 186-192 migratory behavior of presomitic mesoderm cells, 192-194

Snails and squids, see Mollusca Somites, 99-106, 109-111, 116, 192,213,

219, 220

border formation, 184-187 clock genes, 113 mesodermal, 30 tail, 114

vertebrate, 32, 115

Somitogenesis, 30,64, 106-108, 112-113, 184, 186, 192,220

Somitogenesis and vertebrate segmentation clock and wavefront model, 101-102 termination, 110-111 Sox2 transcription factor, 103, 105, 115 SoxB transcription factors, 115-116 Spiral cleavage, 76, 158 Spiralia, 221-232, 258 Brachiopoda, 231-232 Bryozoa, 232 Chaetognatha, 221 Gastrotricha, 224 Micrognathozoa, 223-224 Mollusca, 227, 229-231 Nemertea, 226-227 Phoronida, 232 Platyhelminthes, 224-226 Rotifera, 221-223

Stem cells, 10,28,30-31,41,64, 125, 126, 130, 169, 171,225,280-281 divisions, 159, 161, 173, 174 ectodermal, 79,90 lineages, 154, 158, 165-166, 176 mesodermal, 79, 84, 88,90 NMPs and, 104-105, 110 progenitor, 92 reserve, 32, 261, 270, 286 Stent, Gunther, 154 Strigamia, 30-31

Supernumerary blast cells, 172-174 Syncytial yolk cell (SYC), 173-174

Tapeworms, 5, 206, 225, 226, 235. 236 Tardigrada, 74, 218-219,258 T-box binding sites, 106-107 Teloblasts, 28, 30, 31,79, 83,93, 125-126, 133, 136, 137, 144, 145, 146, 160, 173 cell proliferation, 31 ectodermal, 130

M. 161-162, 171. 172, 174

N, 165, 166, 172

O/P, 164, 169, 172, 174 Q, 165, 169, 172, 174 Telotroch, 28,79, 88 Tltamnocephalus sp., 43-46,53,54,64 initial growth zone, 43 S-phase domains, 44-45 T. platyurus, 43

WnlA mRNA expression, 45-46 Thecostraca, 137 Thorogood, Peter, 184

Time-lapse imaging, 84, 184-190, 192-195, 199, 268,274

Time-lapse photomicrography, 266 Toll receptor, 57-58, 61 Transcriptional profiling approaches, 90 Translational symmetry, 5 Tribolium sp., 30,48-52, 55,56, 59,65 cell division

in posterior, 49

requirement in elongation, 50-51 computational modeling, 52 growth zone, 51 model, 58-63

convergent extension in germband, 58-59 growth zone vs. Drosophila germband, 59 hypotheses for convergent extension mechanisms, 62-63 pair-rule genes, 60-61 polarized effectors of cell movement, 62 posterior cells, 59-60 toll receptors, 61 T. caslaneum, 48, 194-196, 198 temporal bursts of cell division, 49-50 Tricladida, 258 Tritometamerism, 13, 15 Trochophore larvae, 78-79, 81-82 Trophocoel theory, 11,15 Tubifex tubifex, 84, 88-90,280 Tunicates, 213-214 Turbanella comma, 224 Tylenchida, 215

Urbilateria. 16.92. 115. 258 Urochordata, 258

Velvet worms, see Euperipatoides rowelli; Onychophora

Ventral nerve cord (VNC), 71,88, 155, 232, 264, 266, 268-275, 278,283-285 Ventral nervous system, 219 Ventral organs, 220 Vertebrate segmentation, 99-116

live imaging, 184-194 cell dynamics, 184-186 clock and wavefront model, 186-192 migratory behavior of presomitic mesoderm cells, 192-194 neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) affecting segment number and body length, 113-115 Brachyury gene, 105-107 as cellular source, 102-103 existence, 115-116 induction of paraxial/somite fate, 109-110

somites along anterior-posterior axis, 103-104

stem cells, 104-105 overview, 99-101

progenitor cell behaviors and cycling gene expression, 111-113 signaling pathways, 107-109 somitogenesis

clock and wavefront model, 101-102 termination, 110-111 Vitellophages, 126 VNC, see Ventral nerve cord

Water bears, see Tardigrada Wheel worms, see Rotifera Wnt/caudal gene expression, 45-46, 54 Wnt signaling, 30, 102-104, 108, 109, 111, 115, 166, 190-191, 193, 269,281 Wood, Andrew, 184 Wound epithelium, 260 Wound healing, 260-261, 263-265, 268-270, 273,275-277, 285, 286 Wound sealing, 265

Xenacoelomorpha, 208-209.258 Xenopas embryos, 105, 185, 192 X-ray irradiation, 48

ZCS, see Zone of cell-cycle synchronization Zebrafish, 62, 100, 102-107, 109-116, 184-189, 191-193, 206

Zone of cell-cycle synchronization (ZCS), 281

 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source