Carbon Nanomaterials in Biomedicine and the Environment

I: Carbon NanomaterialsBiocomposite Materials Based on Carbonized Rice Husk in Biomedicine and Environmental ApplicationsIntroductionSynthesis of Nanostructured Carbonized MaterialsSurface Structure and Composition of the Plant-Derived Carbonized SorbentsAdsorption Characteristics of the Nanostructured Carbonized Materials in Respect of Microbial CellsPerformance of Biocomposite Carbonized Materials in Probiotic ApplicationsBiological ObjectsFuture Prospects for Biomedical and Environmental Engineering ApplicationsBiocomposite Material on the Basis of Carbonized Rice Husk and Micro-Algae SpirulinaNanostructured Carbonized Materials for Treatment of Chronic Wounds and SoresNCS in BioremediationBiosorbents Based on Carbonized Apricot Stones and Rice BuskIntroductionExperimentalCarbonized Carriers as a Biomaterial SubstratePreparation of the Carbonized SorbentsCulture Conditions for Microbial CellsExamination of Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Properties of Microbial Cell WallsMethods for Determining Sorption and Desorption of Carbonized Carriers with Regard to Microbial CellsMicroculture AssayResults of the StudyPhysicochemical Properties of Sorbents on the Basis of Rice Husk and Apricot Stones Prepared at Different Carbonization TemperaturesEffect of High-Temperature Carbonization of Rice Husk and Apricot Stones on the Change in the Mass of Raw Material and Its Carbon ContentResults of Spectral Analysis of Rice Husk and Apricot Stones Carbonized at Different TemperaturesDetermination of Specific Surface Area, Porosity, and Density of the Carbonized MaterialsIR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Carbonized Materials on the Basis of Rice Husk and Apricot StonesAttachment Activity of the Carbonized Sorbents with Regard to Microbial CellsEffect of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Microorganisms and Carbonization Temperature on Attachment Activity of the Sorbents with Regard to Microbial CellsEffect of the Carbonized Sorbents on Viability of Attached Microbial CellsIR Spectroscopic Characteristics of BiosorbentsConclusionII: Research MethodsResearch Methods of Nanostructures and NanomaterialsIntroductionMicrostructural AnalysisMorphostructure Selection of Rice Husk as SorbentDiffraction AnalysisSpectral Methods of AnalysisDetermination of Specific SurfaceDetermining the Size of NanoparticlesInvestigation of Some Carbonized Vegetable Materials by EPR MethodExperimental TechniquesEPR-Investigation of Carbonized Samples of Walnut Shell, Grape-Stone and Birch CuttingsEPR Investigation of Carbonized PhragmitesInvestigation of Rice Husk by EPREPR Analysis of Wheat BranEPR of Carbonized Apricot StonesIII: Biomolecules and Fusicoccin Compounds for Cancer TreatmentThe Use of Fusicoccin as Anticancer CompoundIntroductionExperimental MethodsPreparation of Activated Carbons Based on Vegetable Raw MaterialsChromatographic Separation of FusicoccinStudy of Biological ActivityCytotoxic activityAntimicrobial ActivityAnalgesic ActivityPhagocytosis-Stimulating ActivityResultsComputer Modeling of Activated Carbon for FusicoccinExtract of Phytohormone of Fusicoccin Containing ComponentsMass Spectrometric AnalysisFragmentation of Fusicoccin Using MS/MSAnalysis of Samples on ChromatogramThe Examination of the Cytotoxic Activity of the Obtained FractionsAntimicrobial Activity TestsThe Study of the Analgesic Activity of Naturally Occurring Substances and Their DerivativesTesting for the Phagocytosis-Stimulating ActivityConclusionPorous Carbon Nanostructured Sorbents for Biomedical ApplicationIntroductionPhysical and Chemical Basis of Absorption, Hydrophobic and Gel ChromatographySorbent for Detoxification of Toxins and Biologically Active SubstancesCytokinin MediatorResultsInvestigation of Molecular-Sieve Characteristics “Nanocarbosorb” and Its Application for Spherosome TreatmentAdsorption Chromatography of the BiostimulatorStudying the Properties of the Biostimulator with the Help of BiotestsApplication of BS for Vegetative Propagation of Perennial PlantsConclusionIV: Entero- and VulnerosorptionFunctionalization of Carbon Based Wound Dressings with Antimicrobial Phytoextracts for Bioactive Treatment of Septic WoundsIntroductionSelection of Medicinal Plants with High Antimicrobial ActivityStudy of the Antimicrobial Activity of Biocomposites Based on CRH and Phytoextracts in vitroThe Creation of Wound Dressing Based on Heterogeneous BiocompositesStudy of the Antimicrobial Activity of Biocomposites Based on CRH and Phytoextracts in VivoConclusionProspective Use of Probiotics Immobilized on Sorbents with Nanostructured SurfacesIntroductionAdsorption Characteristics of the Nanostructured Carbonized Materials in Respect of Microbial CellsDevelopment of Immobilized ProbioticsConclusionsV: Blood PurificationAdvances in Nanostructured Carbons for Biomedical ApplicationsIntroductionBeads, Composite and Monolith FormsBeadsAC Beads for Protein Bound Toxin RemovalAC Beads for Cytokine RemovalIn vitro Cytotoxicity of Carbon BeadsCryogel Composite MonolithsMonolithsVI: Carbonized Carriers as a Biomaterial SubstrateProduction and Properties of Polymer-Derived Carbons for Medical ApplicationsIntroductionProduction of Phenolic ResinsResin PrecursorsCross-Linking Agents for Phenolic ResinsCarbon Formation-Phenolic Resin Pyrolysis and ActivationProduction of Structured Phenolic Resin-Derived CarbonsMicroporous Monolithic CarbonsMeso/Micro Porous CarbonsBiomedical TestingCritical poisoningBiocompatibilityHaemofiltrationOral Adsorption for the Treatment of Liver DiseaseMicro/Meso/Macro Porous Monolithic CarbonsPreparation of Structured Nanoporous Materials Using Lignin BindersProduction of resin precursorProduction of carbon in monolithic formMonolith EvaluationRemoval of IL-6 from circulating plasma using 7 mm monolithIndoxyl sulphate and p-cresyl sulphate removal by monoliths with increasing lignin contentEvaluation of adsorption from whole blood using 28.5 mm diameter monolithsVII: EnvironmentUse of Advanced Nanomaterials for Bioremediation of Contaminated EcosystemsCharacterization of Activated Carbons Obtained from Rice HuskIntroduction: Causes of Pollution by NitratesTraditional Methods of Removing NitratesActivated Carbons in Nitrate Removal from WaterCharacteristics and Properties of Coals Obtained from Rice Husk: Production, Physicochemical Properties, DenitrationExperimentalPreparation of activated carbonsActivated carbons characterizationResults and discussionConclusionCarbonization of Plant Raw Materials and the Use of the Obtained Materials as SorbentsIntroductionIR-Spectroscopic Analysis of Carbonized MaterialsInvestigation of Sorption Characteristics of Carbonized MaterialsSorption of Metal IonsThe Structure and Morphology of Carbonized MaterialsFibrous StructuresFilm FormationsConclusionIndex
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