# Appendix C: Nobel Prize Winners in Physics

- 1901 Wilhelm Konrad Rontgen
- 1902 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Pieter Zeeman
- 1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel Pierre Curie

Marie Sklodowska-Curie

- 1904 Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
- 1905 Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard
- 1906 Joseph John Thomson
- 1907 Albert Abraham Michelson
- 1908 Gabriel Lippmann
- 1909 Guglielmo Marconi Carl Ferdinand Braun
- 1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals
- 1911 Wilhelm Wien
- 1912 Nils Gustaf Dalen
- 1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
- 1914 Max von Laue
- 1915 William Henry Bragg William Lawrence Bragg
- 1917 Charles Glover Barkla
- 1918 Max Planck
- 1919 Johannes Stark
- 1920 Charles-Edouard Guillaume
- 1921 Albert Einstein
- 1922 Niels Bohr
- 1923 Robert Andrews Millikan
- 1924 Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
- 1925 James Franck Gustav Hertz
- 1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin
- 1927 Arthur Holly Compton Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
- 1845-1923 For the discovery of X-rays.
- 1853-1928 For their work on the influence of magnetism on radiation. 1865-1943
- 1852-1908 For his discovery of radioactivity.
- 1859-1906 For their joint research on nuclear radiation phenomena.
- 1867- 1934
- 1842-1919 For his research on the densities of the gases and for his discover)' of argon.
- 1862-1947 For his work on cathode rays.
- 1856-1940 For his research on the conduction of electricity by gases.
- 1852- 1931 For his optical instruments and for measuring the speed

of light.

- 1845-1921 For his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the interference techniques.
- 1874-1937 For their development of wireless telegraphy.
- 1850-1918
- 1837-1932 For his research on the equation of state for gases and liquids.
- 1864-1928 For his work on heat radiation.
- 1869- 1937 For his invention of automatic regulators for use in

lighthouses.

1853- 1926 For his work on the properties of matter at low temperatures

and for liquefying helium.

- 1879-1960 For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays in crystals. 1862-1942 For their analysis of crystal structure using X-rays.
- 1890-1971
- 1877-1944 For his study of atoms by X-ray scattering.
- 1858-1947 For his discovery of quanta of energy.
- 1874-1957 For his discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields.
- 1861-1938 For his discovery of invar, a nickel-steel alloy.
- 1879-1955 For his explanation of the photoelectric effect.
- 1885-1962 For his model of the atom.
- 1868- 1953 For his measurement of the charge of the electron and for his

experimental work on the photoelectric effect.

- 1888-1979 For his research in X-ray spectroscopy.
- 1882-1964 For their research on electron-atom collisions.
- 1887-1975
- 1870- 1942 For his work on the discontinuous structure of matter and for

measuring the size of atoms.

- 1892-1962 For his discovery of the Compton effect.
- 1869- 1959 For inventing the cloud chamber which makes visible the

paths of charged particles.

- 1928 Owen Willans Richardson 1879-1959
- 1929 Prince Louis-Victor de Broglie 1892-1987
- 1930 Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 1888-1970
- 1932 Werner Heisenberg 1901-1976
- 1933 Erwin Schrodinger 1887-1962

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac 1902-1984

- 1935 James Chadwick 1891-1974
- 1936 Victor Franz Hess 1883-1964

Carl David Anderson 1904-1984

1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson 1881-1958

George Paget Thomson 1892-1975

- 1938 Enrico Fermi 1901-1954
- 1939 Ernest Orlando Lawrence 1901-1958
- 1943 Otto Stern 1888-1969
- 1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi 1898-1988
- 1945 Wolfgang Pauli 1900-1958
- 1946 Percy Williams Bridgman 1882-1961
- 1947 Sir Edward Victor Appleton 1892-1965
- 1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett 1897-1974
- 1949 Hideki Yukaw'a 1907-1981
- 1950 Cecil Frank Powell 1903-1969
- 1951 Sir John Douglas Cockcroft 1897-1967

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton 1903-1995

1952 Felix Bloch 1905-1983

Edward Mills Purcell 1912-1997

- 1953 Frits Zernike 1888-1966
- 1954 Max Born 1882-1970

Walther Bothc 1891-1957

1955 Willis Eugene Lamb 1913-2008

Polykarp Kusch 1911-1993

1956 William Shockley 1910-1989

John Bardeen 1908-1991

Walter Houser Brattain 1902-1987

1957 Chen Ning Yang 1922—

Tsung Dao Lee 1926—

1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov 1904-1990

IP ja Mikhailovich Frank 1908-1990

Igor'Evgen'evie Tamm 1895-1971

1959 Emilio Gino Segre 1905-1989

Owen Chamberlain 1920-2006

- 1960 Donald Arthur Glaser 1926-2013
- 1961 Robert Hofstadter 1915-1990

Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer 1929-2011

1962 Lev Davidovic Landau 1908-1968

For his discovery of the thermionic effect.

For his discovery of the wave nature of electrons.

For his work on light scattering.

For the development of quantum mechanics.

For the development of wave mechanics.

For the development of relativistic quantum mechanics.

For the discovery of the neutron.

For the discovery of cosmic radiation.

For the discovery of the positron.

For their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals, confirming de Broglie’s hypothesis.

For producing new radioactive elements by means of neutron irradiation.

For the invention of the cyclotron.

For his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton.

For his discovery of the nuclear magnetic resonance method that records the magnetic properties of nuclei.

For the discovery of the exclusion principle.

For his work in the field of high-pressure physics.

For his study of the physics of the upper atmosphere.

For his discoveries in nuclear physics with cloud-chamber photographs of cosmic rays.

For his prediction of the existence of mesons.

For his photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries of new mesons.

For their work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei using a particle accelerator.

For their discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases.

For his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.

For his interpretation of the wave function as probability.

For his coincidence method for studying subatomic particles.

For his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.

For his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.

For their development of the transistor.

For their prediction that parity is not conserved in beta decay.

For the discovery and interpretation of Cerenkov radiation.

For their discovery of the antiproton.

For the development of the bubble chamber.

For his discovery of the internal structure of the nucleons.

For his discovery of the Mossbauer effect regarding recoilless emission of y-rays.

For his theoretical work on the superfluidity of liquid helium.

*(Continued)*

1963 Eugene P. Wigner 1902-1995

Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972

J. Hans D. Jensen 1907-1973

1964 Charles H. Townes 1915-2015

Nikolai G. Basov 1922-2001

Alexander M. Prokhorov 1916-2002

1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga 1906-1979

Julian Schwinger 1918-1994

Richard P Feynman 1918-1988

- 1966 Alfred Kastler 1902-1984
- 1967 Hans Albrecht Bethe 1906-2005
- 1968 Luis W. Alvarez 1911-1988
- 1969 Murray Gell-Mann 1929-2019
- 1970 Hannes Alfven 1908-1995

Louis Neel 1904-2000

- 1971 Dennis Gabor 1900-1979
- 1972 John Bardeen 1908-1991

Leon N. Cooper 1931—

J. Robert Schrieffer 1931—

1973 Leo Esaki 1925-

Ivar Giaever 1929-

Brian D. Josephson 1940-

1974 Antony Hewish 1924-

Sir Martin Ryle 1918-1984

1975 AageBohr 1922-2009

Ben Mottelson 1926—

James Rainwater 1917-1986

1976 Burton Richter 1931-2018

Samuel Chao Chung Ting 1936—

1977 Philip Warren Anderson 1923—

Nevill Francis Mott 1905-1996

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 1899-1980

1978 Peter L. Kapitza 1894-1984

Arno A. Penzias 1926—

Robert Woodrow Wilson 1936-

1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow 1932-

Abdus Salam 1926-1996

Steven Weinberg 1933—

1980 James W. Cronin 1931-2016

ValL. Fitch 1923-2015

1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen 1920-2017

Arthur Leonard Schawlow 1921-1999

Kai M. Sicgbahn 1918-2007

1982 Kenneth Geddes Wilson 1936-2013

For his discovery and application of symmetry principles to elementary particle theory.

For their work concerning the shell structure of the nucleus.

For fundamental work in quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.

For their development of quantum electrodynamics.

For the development of optical methods for studying energy levels in atoms.

For discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.

For the discovery of resonance states of elementary particles.

For his theoretical work regarding the classification of elementary particles.

For discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics.

For his discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism.

For his development of the principles of holography.

For their development of a theory' of superconductivity.

For the discovery of tunneling in semiconductors.

For the discovery of tunneling in superconductors.

For his theoretical work on the properties of currents through a tunnel barrier.

For the discovery of pulsars.

For his work in radio interferometry.

For their work on the structure of the atomic nucleus.

For their independent discovery of J and psi particles.

For their theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.

For his fundamental work in low-temperature physics.

For the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

For their unified theory of the weak and electromagnetic forces and their prediction of the weak neutral current.

For the discovery of parity violations in the decay of neutral К mesons.

For their development of laser spectroscopy.

For the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.

For his work regarding phase transitions.

1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 1910-1995

William A. Fowler 1911-1995

1984 Carlo Rubbia 1934-

Simon van der Meer 1925-2011

- 1985 Klaus von Klitzing 1943—
- 1986 Ernst Ruska 1906-1988

Gerd Binnig 1947-

Heinrich Rohrer 1933-2013

1987 Karl Alex Muller 1927-

J. George Bednorz 1950—

1988 Leon Lederman 1922-2018

Melvin Schwartz 1932-2006

Jack Steinberger 1921-

1989 Norman Ramsay 1915-2011

Hans Dehmelt 1922-2017

Wolfgang Paul 1913-1993

1990 Jerome Friedman 1930-

Henry Kendall 1926-1999

Richard Taylor 1929-2018

- 1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes 1932-2007
- 1992 Georges Charpak 1924-2010
- 1993 Russell Hulse 1950-

Joseph Taylor 1941-

1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse 1918-2003

Clifford G. Shull 1915-2001

1995 Martin L. Perl 1927-2014

Frederick Reines 1918-1998

1996 David M. Lee 1931-

Douglas D. Osheroff 1945—

Robert C. Richardson 1937-2013

1997 Steven Chu 1948-

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji 1938-

William D. Phillips 1948—

1998 Robert B. Laughlin 1950—

Horst L. Stormer 1949—

Daniel C. Tsui 1939—

1999 Gerardus T Hooft 1946-

Martinus J.G. Veltman 1931—

2000 Zhores I. Alferov 1930-2019

Herbert Kroemer 1928-

Jack S. Kilby 1923-2005

2001 Eric A. Cornell 1961-

Wolfgang Ketterle 1957-

Carl E. Wieman 1951—

For his work on the structure and evolution of stars.

For his work on the formation of the chemical elements.

For their discovery of the W and Z particles, the carriers of the weak interaction.

For his discovery of the quantized Hall effect.

For the invention of the electron microscope.

For the invention of the scanning tunneling electron microscope.

For their discovery of high-temperature superconductors.

For their production of neutrino beams and their discovery of the mu neutrino.

For the development of atomic resonance spectroscopy.

For their development of techniques for trapping single atoms.

For experiments that revealed the existence of quarks.

For discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to polymers and liquid crystals.

For his development of elementary particle detectors.

For discovering evidence for gravitational waves.

For contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques in condensed matter studies.

For experimental contributions to lepton physics.

For their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.

For the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

For their discovery of a new form of quantum field with fractionally charged excitations.

For elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.

For basic work on information and communication technology and specifically for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed optoelectronics.

For basic work on information and communication technology and specifically for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.

For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

2002 Raymond Davis Jr. 1914-2006

Masatoshi Koshiba 1926-

Riccardo Giacconi 1931-2018

2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov 1928-2017

Vitaly L. Ginzburg 1916-2009

Anthony J. Leggett 1938—

2004 David J. Gross 1941-

H. David Politzer 1949—

Frank Wilczek 1951—

2005 Roy J. Glauber 1925-2018

John L. Hall 1934-

Tlieodor W. Hansch 1941-

2006 John C. Mather 1946—

George F. Smoot 1945-

2007 Albert Fert 1938-

Peter Griinberg 1939—

2008 Yoichiro Nambu 1921-2015

Makoto Kobayashi 1944-

Toshihide Maskawa 1940-

2009 Charles Kuen Kao 1933-2018

Willard S. Boyle 1944-2011

George E. Smith 1930-

2010 Andre Geim 1958-

Konstantin Novoselov 1974-

2011 Saul Perlmutter 1959—

Brian P. Schmidt 1967—

AdamG. Riess 1969—

2012 Serge Haroche 1944-

David J. Wineland 1944—

2013 Francois Englert 1932—

Peter W. Higgs 1929-

2014 Isamu Akasaki 1929—

Hiroshi Amano 1960-

Shuji Nakamura 1954—

2015 Takaaki Kajita 1959—

Arthur B. McDonald 1943—

2016 David J. Thouless 1934-2019

F. Duncan M. Haldane 1951-

J. Michael Kosterlitz 1943-

For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos.

For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.

For pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids.

For the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction.

For his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence.

For their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique.

For their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

For the discovery of giant magnetoresistance.

For the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics.

For the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry, which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.

For groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication.

For the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit—the CCD sensor.

For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two- dimensional material graphene.

For the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae.

For groundbreaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems.

For the theoretical discover)' of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

For the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which have enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.

For the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass.

For theoretical discoveries of topological-phase transitions and topological phases of matter.

2017 Rainer Weiss 1932—

Barry C. Barish 1936-

Kip S. Thorne 1940-

2018 Arthur Ashkin 1922—

Gerard Mourou 1944-

Donna Strickland 1959—

2019 James Peebles 1935-

Michel Mayor 1942-

Didier Queloz 1966-

For decisive contributions to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detector and the observation of gravitational waves.

For the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems.

For their method of generating high-intensity, ultrashort optical pulses.

For theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology.

For the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.

**Appendix D**