Precision Metal Additive Manufacturing

Introduction to Additive ManufacturingBasic DefinitionsGeneral TermsProcess CategoriesOther TermsTowards Precision Additive ManufacturingReferencesTopology Optimisation TechniquesIntroductionTopology OptimisationDensity-Based TO MethodProblem FormulationSensitivity AnalysisFiltering TechniquesSolution ApproachesApplication DomainsTopology Optimisation for Precision Metal AMTO Methods for Avoiding Overhangs in Precision AM PartsTwo-Dimensional Overhang ControlD Overhang ControlSupport InclusionTO Methods for Preventing Overheating in Precision AM PartsTowards TO Methods for Avoiding Distortion in Precision AM PartsChallenges and OutlookReferencesDevelopment of Precision Additive Manufacturing ProcessesIntroductionState of the Art and Insight into Precision Process DevelopmentSetting PrioritiesSignificant Process ParametersLaser-Related Process ParametersScan-Related Process ParametersPowder-Related Process ParametersBuild Chamber-Related ParametersCombined Processing ParametersAdditive Manufacturing Performance IndicatorsMechanical PropertiesDimensional AccuracySurface TextureDensityTotal Build TimeEnergy ConsumptionSystem-Wide Performance IndicatorsData-Driven Process ImprovementDesign of ExperimentsModelling of Process Performance (Quantifying Input/Output Process Relationships)Regression and Statistical AnalysisArtificial Neural Network ModellingProcess OptimisationPrecision Processes in the Domain of Industry 4.0Real-Time Monitoring of AM ProcessesArtificial Intelligence and Decision-Making Systems for Digital Quality ControlFuture Perspectives for Precision AM ProcessesConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesModelling Techniques to Enhance Precision in Metal Additive ManufacturingIntroductionDemystifying AM through SimulationsThe Physics of Laser Powder Bed FusionChallenges of Length and Time ScalesWarpage and Distortion Predictions by Macro-Scale Modelling of AMUnderstanding Thermal History, Residual Stresses and DistortionsGoals and Challenges in Macro-Scale Modelling of AM PartsFull-Scale, Reduced-Order and Effective ModelsTracking Powders, Pores and Melt Pools during AM through Meso-Scale ModelsPowder Bed Formation and RepresentationSimulating Laser–Material InteractionsMelt-Pool Dynamics in a Powder BedEvolution of Porosity during AMSurfaces and Solidification during AMMicrostructure Simulations in Precision AMUnderstanding the Metallurgical NeedsMetallurgical Modelling TechniquesRevisiting Solidification during AM from a Metallurgical PerspectiveNeed for Heat-Treatment as Post-ProcessData-Driven Modelling for Process WindowsData-Based ModelsDigital and Physical Design of ExperimentsGIGO Approach to Model CalibrationConcluding Remarks and Future OutlookReferencesSecondary Finishing OperationsIntroductionBasic Definition of Secondary FinishingWhat Is Considered to Be Secondary Finishing in This Chapter?Not Included in the Scope of This ChapterWhy Do AM Surfaces Need to Be Finished?Impact of Surface Topography on FunctionFatigue ApplicationsExamples of AM SurfacesSpecification Standards in Secondary FinishingChallenges for Finishing Operations for AM PartsTypical Operational Challenges for Metal AM Components Due to Surface Morphologies and TopographiesChallenges of Surface TopographySupporting Material and Witness MarksDistortionGeometrical Challenges for Finishing OperationsAM Process Chain Challenges for Finishing OperationsFinishing Challenges for AM in Precision ApplicationsConventional Machining MethodsNon-Conventional Machining MethodsEmerging Technologies Developed for AMChemical ProcessesHybrid Mass Finishing and ChemicalHybrid Mass Finishing and ElectropolishingElectropolishing DevelopmentsWhat Processes Are Appropriate for AM?Narrow ChannelsComplex Internal ChannelsInternal Cavities (Surface Connected)Variable Cross-Section Internal ChannelsOuter Lattice SurfacesInner Lattice SurfacesThin FeaturesClosed Internal CavitiesOther Considerations for Finishing Operations in AMHow to Impact AM Design for FinishingFuture WorkNew Processes and Technologies in DevelopmentHybrid AFMLaser PolishingAutomation and ModellingFuture of This FieldInternal Targeted FinishingHybrid TechnologiesDesign ProcessesSpecification StandardsAutomation and Targeted FinishingReferencesStandards in Additive ManufacturingIntroductionAM Standards RoadmapsAmerica MakesIdentified Gaps in the RoadmapsAM Powder Feedstock Characterisation StandardsFeedstock Sampling StrategyParticle Size Determination and DistributionMorphology Characterisation MethodsFlow CharacteristicsThermal CharacterisationDensity DeterminationChemical CompositionProcessesVerificationTensile PropertiesCompressive PropertiesHardness MeasurementFatigue Measurement MethodsFracture ToughnessOther PropertiesSurface StandardsProfile and Areal SurfacesDimensional StandardsPerformance Verification of Coordinate Measuring MachinesNon-Destructive Evaluation StandardsCurrent StandardsWelding StandardsCasting StandardsFuture and Planned Standards ActivitiesReferencesCost Implications of Precision Additive ManufacturingIntroductionA Primer in Manufacturing Cost ModellingDeveloping an AM Costing FrameworkSpecifying a Simple Cost Model for Precision AMA Brief Discussion of the Cost Model for Precision AMIndirect Cost RatesCapacity UtilisationIntegration with Other Operational ProcessesRelationship between Failure Parameters and Costs of InspectionSummary and Additional PerspectivesReferencesMachine Performance EvaluationDefinitionsMotivationBackgroundOrganisation of This ChapterThree-Dimensional Test ArtefactsKey Contributions to 3D Test ArtefactsStrengths and Challenges of 3D Test ArtefactsConsiderations for 3D Test Artefact DesignComponent TestingKey Contributions to Component TestingStrengths and Challenges of Component TestingGeneral Principles of Component TestingZ-AxisDirected Energy Deposition Machine Error MotionsPowder Bed Fusion Machine Error MotionsEnergy Beam DiagnosticsNon-Geometric MeasurementsTwo-Dimensional Test ArtefactsStrengths and Challenges of 2D Test ArtefactsKey Contributions to 2D Test ArtefactsConsiderations for Designing a 2D Test ArtefactAreas for Future ResearchDisclaimerReferencesNon-Destructive Evaluation for Additive ManufacturingIntroductionTypical Defects in AMNDE Challenges in AMNDE Methods – Advantages and LimitationsNDE Standardisation for AMNDE for Qualification in AMPost-Process InspectionIn-Process InspectionNDE Reliability in AMGeneral Aspects of Experimental Pod CurvesMathematical Simulation of PoD CurvesEstimation of Experimental PoDCurrent PoD Performed in AMConclusions and Future ResearchAcknowledgementsReferencesPost-Process Coordinate MetrologyIntroductionGeneral Metrology Terms and DefinitionsBasics for Coordinate MetrologyCoordinate Metrology System ConfigurationsCoordinate Metrology SoftwareCMS AlignmentCMS ErrorsContact MethodsContact Probe TypesContact Probe ErrorsAM Roughness Issues with Contact ProbingOptical MethodsVision SystemsScanning Optical ProbesTime-of-Flight MethodLaser TriangulationAreal Optical ProbesDigital Fringe Projection TechniquePhotogrammetryCalibration and TraceabilityCurrent Performance Evaluation FrameworkCurrent Uncertainty FrameworkIssues with Non-Contact CMS Performance EvaluationTowards Calibration of Non-Contact CMSsCurrent Research and Future LookAcknowledgementsReferencesPost-Process Surface MetrologyIntroductionThe Nature of Metal AM SurfacesRelevant Specification StandardsProfile StandardsAreal StandardsOther StandardsSurface Topography MeasurementSystem ArchitecturesProfile and Areal Topography Measurement SystemsThree-Axis And Five-Axis Topography Measurement SystemsThree- and Five-Axis Measurement on AM SurfacesSurface Topography DatasetsHeight MapsTriangle MeshesContact MethodsStylus Instruments – BasicsStylus Instruments – Uses in AMNon-Contact, Optical MethodsOptical Methods for Topography Measurement – BasicsOptical Measurement of Surface Topography – Uses in AMNon-Contact, Non-Optical MethodsScanning Electron Microscopy – BasicsScanning Electron Microscopy – Uses in AMX-Ray Computed Tomography – BasicsX-Ray Computed Tomography – Uses in AMPerformance Comparison of Non-Contact MethodsPseudo-Contact MethodsScanning Probe Microscopy – BasicsScanning Probe Microscopy – Uses in AMSurface Topography AnalysisTopography Data Pre-ProcessingTopography Data Pre-Processing for AM SurfacesSurface Texture ParametersThe Arithmetical Mean Deviation of the Roughness Profile – RaAreal Height ParametersAreal Height Parameters – Uses in AMThe Areal Material Ratio Curve and Related ParametersThe Areal Material Ratio Curve and Related Parameters – Uses in AMSpatial ParametersSpatial Parameters – Uses in AMTopography Segmentation and Characterisation of Surface FeaturesTopography Segmentation and Characterisation of Surface Features – Uses in AMCharacterisation of Full-3D TopographiesUncertainty in Surface Topography Measurement and CharacterisationCurrent Research and Future LookReferencesX-Ray Computed TomographyIntroductionFundamentals of Industrial X-Ray Computed TomographyEvolution of X-Ray Computed TomographyIndustrial CT Systems – Configurations and ComponentsX-Ray SourceX-Ray DetectorKinematic SystemCT Scanning ProcessMeasurement Errors and TraceabilityMain Error Sources and CT Image ArtefactsMetrological Performance VerificationUncertainty DeterminationReference ObjectsApplications of CT Metrology for AMDimensional and Geometrical Product VerificationInternal Defect AnalysisSurface Topography CharacterisationPowder Feedstock CharacterisationProduct Development and Process OptimisationCT for Product DevelopmentCT for Process OptimisationConclusion and Future LookReferencesOn-Machine Measurement, Monitoring and ControlIntroductionBasic Definitions and TerminologyDefects and Their Fingerprint in PBF ProcessesCauses of DefectsDefects Induced by Feedstock MaterialEquipment-Induced DefectsDefects due to Improper Design or Job PreparationProcess Setting–Induced DefectsTypes of DefectsPorosityResidual Stresses, Cracks and DelaminationMicrostructural Inhomogeneity and ImpuritiesBallingDimensional and Geometrical DeviationsSurface DefectsOn-Machine Sensing Methods and ArchitecturesBasic PrinciplesElectromagnetic Spectral Ranges for On-Machine MeasurementsSpatially Integrated SensorsSpatially Resolved SensorsData Gathering LevelsOn-Machine Sensing ArchitecturesCo-Axial SensingOff-Axis SensingMapping between On-Machine Sensing, Process Signatures and Process DefectsOn-Machine MeasurementOn-Machine Topography ReconstructionOther MethodsStatistical Process Monitoring Using On-Machine SensingBasic Principles of SPMFalse Alarms and False Negatives: Type I and Type II ErrorsControl ChartsExamples of SPMOn-Machine Monitoring Example, Level 1On-Machine Monitoring Example, Level 2Process ControlFeedback ControlFeedforward ControlCurrent Research and Future LookAcknowledgementsReferencesIndex
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