Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs:Extreme Application

Ethical Considerations Associated with Exploration and Analog Environment ResearchIntroductionEvolution of Ethical Guidelines for Research Using Human SubjectsExisting Ethical GuidelinesNuremberg CodeDeclaration of HelsinkiThe Belmont ReportInstitutional Review Board at NASAApplying Ethical Guidelines to Human Exploration and Analog Research EnvironmentsEmployees Versus Volunteer Research SubjectsSufficiency of Participant-focused Ethical GuidelinesSufficiency of Beneficence – or Risk/Benefit Analysis – Focused GuidanceConclusionReferencesPsychological Selection for Extreme EnvironmentsIntroductionWhat We Know from Assessing Astronaut ApplicantsWhat We Learned from Assessing Astronaut ApplicantsConclusions and RecommendationsReferencesOut of this World Jobs: Alternative Work Analysis and Validation Methods in Extreme EnvironmentsChallenges to Traditional Work Analysis ApproachesAlternative Work Analysis MethodsAlternative Validation StrategiesCase # 1: NASA 1996–2001 Alternative Work Analysis and Selection Validation ProjectsBHP Decisions on Work Analysis and Validation in Response to ChallengesWork Analysis of Long-Duration ISS MissionsRecommendations for Using AWAM for EEPsLimitations and CaveatsCase Study #2: Synthetic Validation of Astronaut Selection MethodsChallenges to Validating Astronaut Selection MeasuresRecommendations for Synthetically Validating the Astronaut Selection ProcessLimitations and CaveatsFuture ConsiderationsCase Study #3: Astronaut Job Analysis Project (2013–2014)RecommendationsLimitations and Practical ImplicationsConclusionReferencesApplying Research-Based Training Principles: Toward Crew-Centered, Mission-Oriented Space Flight TrainingA Brief History of Space Flight TrainingCrew-Centered, Mission-Oriented Space Flight TrainingTraining for MarsApplied Training Principle: Contextual ReinstatementApplied Training Principle: Procedural ReinstatementApplied Training Principle: Easy to Difficult OrderingApplied Training Principle: Strategic Use of KnowledgeApplied Training Principle: SpacingApplied Training Principle: Variability of PracticeApplied Training Principle: RehearsalApplied Training Principle: Focus of AttentionApplied Training Principle: Deliberate PracticeApplied Training Principle: FeedbackConclusionReferencesTeam Training for Long-Duration Space Exploration: A Look Ahead at the Coming ChallengesAn Overview of Team TrainingTraining ContentDelivery MethodsToolsSummaryTeam Training in SpaceThe State of LDSE Teams ResearchChallenges to the Traditional Team Training ParadigmImplications for Training ContentImplications for DeliveryImplications for ToolsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesMitigating the Impact of Communication DelayThe Challenges of Communication DelaySupporting Space/Ground Communication During Asynchronous ConditionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesBehavioral Health Adaptation in ICE Environments: Process and Countermeasures for NASA AstronautsFactors Affecting Behavioral Health AdaptationBehavioral Health OutcomesSpaceflight AdaptationsInter- and Intra-Agency Coordination of BHP SupportHistory and Evolution of Behavioral Health SupportDesigned for Longer-Duration MissionsEmerging Need for BHP SupportFundamentals of Behavioral Health SupportBehavioral MedicineBehavioral Health TrainingThe Future – Exploration and Earth-Bound ConcernsReferencesSpace Flight Operational Psychological Support for Astronauts and Their FamiliesSpace Flight Operational Psychological Support for Astronauts and Their FamiliesBrief Overview of Operational Psychology (OpPsy) and Family Support Office (FSO)Operational Psychology at NASAHistory of Operational Psychological Support in Space FlightEarly Operational Psychology Support for the ISSCurrent Operational Psychology SupportPsychological Support for the FamiliesFamily Support OfficeHistory of the FSOSupport for Astronaut Spouses GroupLiaison for Astronaut OfficePreflight and Launch SupportLanding SupportEvidence Supporting Efficacy of Psychology Support at NASAPsychological Support during Off-Nominal EventsConsiderations for the FutureConclusionReferencesExtremely Stressed and Extremely Bored: Team Self-Maintenance in Long-Duration Space ExplorationLDSE and the Need for Self-MaintenanceDefining Team Self-Maintenance: What It Is, and What It Is NotSelf-Maintenance versus ResilienceSelf-Maintenance versus AdaptationPrevious Research on Self-MaintenanceBest Practices for Self-Maintenance in LDSEBest Practices to Combat BoredomBest Practices to Combat Interpersonal ConflictsBest Practices to Encourage Psychological Well-BeingOther Key Considerations for LDSEConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesTeam Task Transitions: Five Factors That Affect Work in SpaceFactor 1 – Task CharacteristicsFactor 2 – Social FactorsFactor 3 – Technology AffordancesFactor 4 – Situational ConstraintsFactor 5 – Individual Differences: Perceptions of Working in Space: Computational Modeling of Working in SpaceContext: Project REDThe Model: CREST (Crew Recommender for Effectively Switching Tasks)ConclusionReferencesThe Human Factors of Design for SpaceflightHuman Systems Integration (HSI)Human-Centered Design Process and Core Human Factors MetricsSpaceflight Case StudiesInternational Space Station (ISS)Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)ExplorationConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesThe Power of Higher-Order Goals for Space ExplorationAlignment of Higher-Order Goals: Addressing Issues of Increasing ComplexityAlignment of Higher-Order Goals: Common VisionAlignment of Higher-Order Goals: Shared Common ValuesA Look to the FutureReferencesBehavioral Health and Performance for Long-Duration MissionsIntroduction: Crawl. Phase I (NASA-Mir, 1993–1998)Relationships (People)Rules (Culture, Systems)Reforms (Technology, Knowledge): Walk. Phase II (Initial ISS Missions 1–22, 1999–2009)Relationships (People)Rules (Culture, Systems)Reforms (Technology, Knowledge): Run. Phase II (ISS Missions 23 to Present, 2010–Present)Relationships (People)Rules (Culture, Systems)Reforms (Technology, Knowledge)ConclusionReferencesIntroductionSelecting Canadian AstronautsCSA Contribution to Human Behavior and Performance TrainingSupporting Canadian AstronautsFuture ChallengesReferencesAstronaut Selection at JAXA – from the BHP PerspectiveAstronaut Selection Carried Out by JAXAJAXA Fourth Astronaut Selection (1999)The Selection SystemThe Entry RequirementsSteps Taken in the SelectionEstablishing Items for BHP AssessmentLong-Duration Mission Aptitude ExaminationJAXA Fifth Astronaut Selection (2009)For the Future SelectionReferencesSelected Russian Contributions to SpaceflightIntroduction: Russian Psychological Support, Monitoring, and Inflight StudiesMethodology of Russian Inflight Psychological SupportMethodology of Space Crew Psychological Status Control: Russian Space Experiment “CONTENT”MethodResultsConclusions: Russian Space Experiment “INTERACTIONS-2”Theoretical BackgroundMethodologyResultsConclusions: Russian Space Experiment “PILOT-T”MethodScope of ResearchResultsConclusionsConclusionReferencesThe Blue DotIndex
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