Increment in the Thickness of Plastic Films

There is also need to consider increasing the thickness of the plastic film used in manufacturing carrier bags from the current 9-11 pm to a minimum of 30 pm. This indeed is the situation in countries such as India. The increased thickness of plastic film is expected to reduce excessive contamination of plastic waste (that increases recycling costs) and makes discarded carrier bags difficult for the wind to blow around. It is proposed, however, that any increase in thickness of plastic film must be accompanied by adoption of a technology that provides a line of weakness on water sachets and other plastic containers that need to have one end torn before their contents can be used [17].

Household Segregation, Reuse and Recycling

Waste should be regarded as a great economic resource. The segregation, reuse and recycling of waste at the household level or point of generation should be encouraged. Paper, plastics, organic matter, metals and glass could all be recycled or converted to usable materials. In order to make user charges effective, there is the need to tailor such charges to the level of environmental consciousness of residents and their ability to pay [17]. Very serious consideration must be given to how more money could be generated to improve the delivery of the service. The government, in the long-term, should consider adopting and modifying the use of other economic instruments such as [1]

  • • Adding charges to property rates so as to unify payment.
  • • Indirect charges through the sale of polythene bags for waste disposal [17].

Recycled polymeric material can be reused which saves production energy and prevents the dumping of materials into the environment. During the last decade, the mechanical recycling industries have showed an encouraging trend, that is, a 7% annual growth in western Europe [2]. Unfortunately, the recycling rate varies regionally, and globally, and only a small percentage of total plastics waste is currently being recycled. In most countries, the forms of plastic that are recycled are largely limited to bottles and drink containers [14]. Most consumers are keen to recycle, and support for recycling is often very high in most Western countries. However, the differences in symbols printed in different forms of plastic to describe recyclability of the object vary considerably among countries or regions and is often an obstacle to convenient recycling. This is why, in most countries, all kinds of plastic waste are collected together and is sorted at special stations before being recycled.

  • [1] Institution of solid-waste pricing systems that will provide continuous incentivesfor households to reduce waste generation (e.g., pay per volume of waste). • Disposal charges levied on dumping of industrial and municipal waste at landfillsites. Rate of charges should depend on type of waste and method of treatmentbefore dumping. • Incentive schemes such as subsidies, concessional loans and tax incentivesto encourage governments and private investors in research, training anddemonstration projects for energy resource recovery, as well as for planning forsolid-waste disposal. • Linking charges to other utility services within the district. • Charging for dumping at landfill sites.
 
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