: Impacts of Macro- and Microplastics on Macrozoobenthos Abundance in the Intertidal Zone
Impacts of Macro- and Microplastics on Macrozoobenthos Abundance in the Intertidal Zone"'
A. P. Bangun, H. Wahyuningsih and A. Mubtadi
- 5.1 Introduction 73
- 5.2 Materials and Methods 74
- 5.2.1 Study Site 74
- 5.2.2 Method of Macroplastic Survey 74
- 5.2.3 Method of Microplastic Survey 75
- 5.2.4 Sampling of Macrozoobenthos 75
- 5.2.5 Data Analysis 75
- 5.3 Results and Discussions 76
- 5.3.1 Macroplastics 76
- 5.3.2 Microplastic
- 5.3.3 Macrozoobenthos 78
- 5.4 Conclusions 79
Development is an inseparable part of human civilization. Life without development activity is a setback in human civilization. Often, developments such as industrial and agricultural factories do not pay attention to the environmental aspect, thus destroying nature. The plastics industry is one of the industries that continues to grow along with the high use of plastics in society [1,2]. The low public awareness of plastic waste management becomes one of the causes of the amount of plastic waste in the environment, especially in coastal waters.
Marine debris is a persistent solid, manufactured or processed by humans, directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, disposed of or abandoned in the marine environment. Type of marine waste including plastic, cloth, foam, Styrofoam, glass, ceramics, metal, paper, rubber and wood [3,4]. The size category is used to classify marine 
debris, i.e., megadebris (>100 mm), macrodebris (>20-100 mm), mesodebris (>5-20 mm), and microdebris (0.3-5 mm) [1,3,4].
Various problems arise due to marine debris, such as reduced coastal beauty, origin of various diseases, effects on the food web and reduced productivity of fish caught [3,5-8]. The potential effects of marine waste chemically tend to increase as the size of plastic particles (microplastics) decreases, while the physical effect increases with the increase in macro-debris size . Macrodebris provides a physical impact, such as closing the surface of the sediment and disrupting the movement of aquatic organisms [6,9,10], and can prevent the growth of mangrove seeds . Macroplastics can also be a host for the growth of invasive species, especially those attached to the substrate [6,8].
Microplastics potentially threaten more seriously than large plastic materials, as organisms that inhabit lower tropical levels, such as planktons that have particles susceptible to microplastic digestion processes, as a result, can affect high-level tropical organisms through bioaccumulation [6,10,11]. Microplastics are consumed by marine organisms when one of the microplastic particles resembles food [8,12-14].
The presence of macro- and microplastics in the environment, especially the aquatic environment, can have an impact on the existence of organisms [7,8]. Macrozoobenthos is one of the several organisms that receive pressure from plastic waste contamination. Macrozoobenthos is often used to predict the imbalance of the physical, chemical and biological environments of waters . The polluted waters will affect the viability of macrozoobenthos organisms because macrozoobenthos is a water biota that is easily affected by the presence of pollutants.
The phenomenon of marine waste in the form of plastic causes unrest in the community with the presence of garbage that has polluted coastal and marine areas, including the Village Jaring Halus Langkat. In addition, the absence of preliminary information about microplastics in this region is one of the constraints to manage the potential of fisheries and marine-based environmentally friendliness. Based on this, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out the macroplastic and microplastic distribution and its impact on macrozoobenthos in the Jaring Halus Village.
-  Reprinted from A P Bangun et al. 2018. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 122,012102. Content from thiswork may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distributionof this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article.