Results and Discussions

Macroplastics

The total number of macroplastics collected from three stations divided into 27 observation plots were 308 items with a total weight is 3689.87 g. The highest macroplastic density found in station 2 ranged between 18.33 and 190.33 species/m2 with weights ranging from 246.33 to 2103 g. The lowest density found in station 3 ranged from 3.33 to 11.67 species/m2 with weights ranging from 13.46 to 117.67 g. Density and macroplastic weights can be seen in Table 5.1.

Plastics is one of the most common types of waste found in various places both on land and in waters. The common marine waste category found in the Coastal Village of Jaring Halus is the macroplastic, i.e., plastic waste with a size larger than 5 mm, with as many as 308 items (Table 5.1). Hastuti (2014) found macroplastic density in Mangrove Ecosystem Pantai Indah Kapuk Jakarta as many as 6079 species. Some research results abroad have found that marine debris is dominated by macroplastic at 48% in Cassina

TABLE 5.1 Abundance and Macroplastic Weights

Station

Macroplastic Abundance (Item/m2)

Total

Macroplastic Weight (g)

Total

Plot 1

Plot 2

Plot 3

Plot 1

Plot 2

Plot 3

1

32.67

9.67

5

47

393

115.67

65.67

574

2

190.33

31.67

18.33

240

2203

508

246.33

2957

3

11.67

5.33

3.33

20

113.67

31.08

13.46

158

Total

234.67

46.67

26.67

308

2709.67

654.75

325.46

3689.87

Beach, Brazil [19]; 67.6% in Northeast Coast Brazil [20]; 89% in Bootless Bay, Papua, New Guinea [21]; 91% in Midway, North Pacific [22]; 68% in Monterey Beach, US [23]; 77% in Kaohsiung, Taiwan [24]; 45.2%-95% in Eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas [25] and 60 5%-80% in Gulf Coast of Guinea of Ghana [26]. The macroplastic proportion is dominant because its density is lower than glass, metal and water density so it is easily transportable [1,7,25].

The highest macroplastic densities found at station 2 (near community settlements) ranged from 18.33 to 190.33 species/m2. This is allegedly due to community activity that contributes most macroplastic compared to station 1 (faced with Malacca Strait). Macroplastic density is influenced by the amount of marine debris carried from the sea, such as fishing and shipping activities in the Malacca Strait and station 3 (opposite the Ular River) where the macroplastic density is influenced by the amount of waste carried by the river. It also indicates that the station distance to the main pollutant source (settlement) effects macroplastic density.

The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test shows that macroplastic density between stations is significantly different with a p-value = 0.005. Mann-Whitney test results show that the macroplastic density of station 1 is significantly different from station 2 with a p-value = 0.031 and not significantly different from station 3 with a p-value = 0.147. The macroplastic density at station 2 differs significantly from station 3 with p = 0.02. The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test shows that macroplastic density between plots is significantly different with p = 0.004. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that the macroplastic density of plot 1 was significantly different from plot 2 with p = 0.031 and significantly different from plot 3 with p = 0.003. The macroplastic density of plot 2 is not significantly different from plot 3 with p = 0.63.

The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test shows that macroplastic density between station plot of observation is not significantly different with p = 0.857. This indicates that the highest tidal distance and lows at each station do not affect macroplastic density. This is in accordance with the results of other studies [27], which obtain macrodebris density in the mangrove ecosystem of Pantai Indah Kapuk is not significantly different between stations and indicates that the station distance from the sea does not affect macrodebris density.

 
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