Index

A

Absorption, 55

Adsorbed chemical pollutants, effect of, 91 Adsorption, 55

factors influencing adsorption process, 190-191

African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), 191, 194 Airway, effect on, 91 Aldrin, 55

Alkalis, 107-108, 127-128 Alkylphenol(s), 168 additives, 55

Analytical methodologies to assessing micro/ nanoplastics within environment, 7-9 Animal husbandry, 88 Arenicola marina, 162

Artifacts, conversion of plastics waste into, 31 Atmosphere, microplastics in, 5 Attenuated total reflectance (ATR), 131

В

Bacillus

B. stereotbermophilus, 33 B. subtilis, 33

BAT, see Best available technology Beach combing, 51 Benthic invertebrate species, 122 Best available technology (BAT), 172 Bio-based plastics, 31 Bioaccumulation, 86 Biodegradability, 31 Biodegradable plastics, 31 Biofouling, 53-54, 191 Bioimaging techniques, 105 Biological

degradation, 4 sampling, 51 Biomagnification, 86 Bioplastics, 31

Biota density of macrozoobenthos, 76 Bisphenol A (BPA), 55, 153-154, 165, 167 Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), 25

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), 88 “Bottom-hugging” currents, 19 Butyl benzyl phthalate (BPP), 165, 168

C

Callorbinus ursinus, see Northern fur seals Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 184 Carcinus maenas, see Shore crab Cathorops

C. agassizzi, 209

C. spixi, 209 Cell sorters, 130 Cellulose acetate (CA), 108, 127 Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 30 Chemical(s)

adsorption, 190 degradation, 4

in marine litter plastics, 163-167 pollutants interaction with microplastics, 54-55

Chemical and waste convention, 170

actions needed and potential support by, 170-174

contribution from Basel convention on hazardous wastes, 173-174 framework of Stockholm and Basel

Conventions to addressing marine litter, 172-173 urgent measures, 170-172 Chlordane, 55

Clarias gariepinus, see African catfish Coastal birds, 23-24 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), 105, 123 Composting, 31 Contamination, 132

during field sampling, 132 mitigating, 136

during sample processing and analysis, 132 Copepod (Eurytemora affinis), 104, 122 Coriolis effect, 52 Coulter counters, 130

D

Danio rerio, see Zebrafish Dapbnia magna, see Water flea Data analysis, 133, 136 Density, 52

separation, 111, 129

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 48 Depuration, 105-106, 124 Dermal route, 10 Desorption, 55 Detritivores, 120

Di(2-ethvlhexvl) phthalate (DEHP),

164-165

Diapterus rbombeus, 209 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 29, 55, 85, 152, 190 Dieldrin, 55

Digestion, 106, 124-129 alkalis, 107-108 enzymes, 109 nitric acid, 107 other acids, 107 oxidizing agents, 108 sodium hypochlorite, 108 temperature effect, 109 Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), 165 Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), 165 Dipsastrea pallida, see Scleractinian corals Dissection, 105, 124

Domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus), 24

E

Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), 120 Ecotoxicology, 29 Education, 30

Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), 160, 164, 173

Endocrine Society, 170fn Endocytosis

uptake in gastrointestinal tract by, 88 uptake in respiratory tract by, 87 Endogenous chemical pollutants, effect of, 91 Endrin, 55 Energy recovery, 33 Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), 194 Entanglement, 22, 25 Environmentally exposed plastics, 106 Environmental persistence and degradation, 188-190

Environmental samples, separation and

analysis of micro/nanoplastics in, 7 Enzymes, 109, 128-129 Epipelagic fish, 54 Eucinostomos melanopterus, 209 Eugeress brasilianus, 209 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 88 European Union (EU), 48 Eurytemora affinis, see Copepod Extended producer responsibility (EPR), 170-171, 174

F

Faunal communities, impact on, 21-27 Field-collected organisms, 103-104, 122-123 Field sampling

contamination during, 132 microplastic accumulation during, 104, 123 microplastic losses during, 104, 122-123 Filter-feeding shellfish, 169 Filtering digestants, 109, 129 Filtration technique, 92 Fishes, 24

effects of microplastics on, 210-211 methods of ingestion of MPs by, 208-210 Floatation, 92

Floral communities, impact on, 28 Flow cytometry, 130 Fluorescent tagging with Nile red, 93 Food and food packaging, fragmented plastics in, 88-90

Food chain, micro/nanoplastics effects on, 6-7 Food safety and availability, potential impacts on,169-170 Formic acid, 107, 127 Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy), 51, 93, 131 Fragmented plastics, 84

in food and food packaging, 88-90 health hazards causing by fragmented plastics, 90-92 microplastics, 84-85 nanoplastics, 85

sources of human consumption of, 86-88 Freshwater

biofilm-related impact, 194 biological effects of sub-micrometer plastics, 194-195 chemical effects, 193-194 effects of plastics and microplastics, 191-194

fate and transport in freshwater systems, 187-191

ingestion of MPs and its biological impact, 191-193

interaction with other compounds,

190-191

micro/nanoplastics in freshwater environment, 5 microplastics, 195-196 occurrence in freshwater systems, 187 sources of plastics and microplastics into freshwater environment, 185-187 Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), 162 Fulmarus glacialis, see Fulmars Fur seals, 25

G

Gallus domesticus, see Domestic chickens Gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique (GC-MS), 93 Gastrointestinal tract, effect on, 91 Geographic distribution, 50 Ghost fishing, 24 Global position system (GPS), 74 Gobio gobio, see Gudgeon GPS, see Global position system Grasshopper effect, 154 Great Pacific Garbage Patch, 5 Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), 191, 210 Gyres, 52

H

Hazardous wastes, contribution from Basel convention on, 173-174 Health hazards causing by fragmented plastics, 90

effect on airway and gastrointestinal tract, 91

inflammatory and immune response by fragmented plastics, 91 toxicological pathways of fragmented plastics, 90-91 Heptachlor, 55

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), 164 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 152 Hexachlorobenzene, 55 High-density microplastics, 52-53 High-density polyethylene (HDPE),

160fn, 184 '

High-temperature gel-permeation

chromatography (HT-GPC), 131 Honolulu Strategy, 170fn Household segregation, reuse and recycling, 32-33

Human health, potential impacts from marine plastics on, 168-169 Hydrochloric acid (HC1), 107, 126-127 Hydrogen peroxide (H>0>), 107, 126, 128 Hydrophobic chemicals, 54 Hydrophobicity, 1 63/h Hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), 166

Hydrophobic organic contaminants, 29 I

Ileum, 88

Incentive schemes, 32 Industrial POPs, 153 Inflammatory and immune response by fragmented plastics, 91

Ingestion, 208 Inhalation, 10—11

exposure to fragmented plastics, 87 International Maritime Organization (IMO), 34

International Panel on Chemical Pollution (IPCP), 164 Invasive species, 28 Invertebrates, 25 Isolating microplastics, 123-129 depuration, 105-106 dissection, 105

К

Kogia breviceps, see Young male pygmy sperm whale

Kruskal-Wallis test, 77-78 L

Laboratory-exposed organisms, 104-105, 123 Land

littering, 185 micro/nanoplastics on, 5 Langoustines (Nepbrops norvegicus), 162 Legislative measures, 34 Lepomis macrochims, 210 Leponis megalotis, 210 Linear low-density polyethylene (PE-LLD),

160 fn

Liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S ratio), 193 Liquid fuel, conversion of plastics waste into, 33 Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 160fn, 194,211

Lumbricus terrestris, see Earthworms M

Macrodebris, 74

Macroplastics, 48-49, 55-56, 76-77; see also Nanoplastics

abundance and macroplastic weights, 76 survey method, 74-75 Macrozoobenthos, 74, 78-79 average density, 78 data analysis, 75-76 macroplastic survey method, 74-75 materials and methods, 74-76 microplastic survey method, 75 results, 76-79 sampling, 75 study site, 74 Mammals, 24-25

Marine biodiversity, potential impacts on, 167-168

Marine birds, 23-24

Marine debris, 73

Marine environment, micro/nanoplastics in, 5 Marine ingestion, 54 Marine litter, 61, 163

framework of Stockholm and Basel

Conventions to addressing, 172-173 future activities to addressing, 174 Marine observational surveys, 51 Marine plastic pollution, 29 Marine pollution (MARPOL), 34, 61 Marine source of consumption, 86-87 Marine trawls, 51 MARPOL, see Marine pollution Matrix dissolution technique, 92-93 Mechanical degradation, 4 Mesopelagic fish, 54 Mesoplodon densirostris, see Blainville’s beaked whale Micro-or nanoplastics, 3

analytical methodologies to assessing micro/nanoplastics within environment, 7-9 effects on food chain, 6-7 effects on plants, 5-6 formation, 4

separation and analysis of micro/ nanoplastics in environmental samples, 7

sources within environment, 4-5 threat of micro/nanoplastics to human beings, 9-11 Microalgae, 162 Microbeads, 185 Microbial biofilms, 52 Microbial degradation, 85 Microbiome, 91-92 Microplastic identification, 129 polymer verification, 131-132 visual identification, 130 Microplastics (MPs), 49, 56, 77-78, 84-85, 120-121, 184-185, 205; see also Fragmented plastics abundance, 75

accumulation during field sampling,

104, 123

collection of microplastics exposure and effects in animal species, 63-68 detection, identification and quantification of, 92-94

effects of microplastics on fishes, 210-211 fate of microplastics in environment, 53-55 film type, 77

global actions on, 211-213

impact on aquaculture and products, 86

interaction of chemical pollutants with, 54-55

losses during field sampling, 104, 122-123 methods of ingestion of MPs by fishes, 208-210

percentage of density and average density of, 78

sampling and abundance, 50-53 sources, 49-50 survey method, 75 types and sources, 206-207 Mirex, 55 Monomers, 48 Mugil cephalus, see Mullet Mullet (Mugil cephalus), 108 Multilayered plastic (MLP), 56 Mussels (Mytilus edulis), 121, 128 Mytilus edulis, see Blue mussels; Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, 162

N

Nanofragmentation, 53 Nanoparticles, 90 Nanoplastics, 49, 85, 167

detection, identification and quantification of, 92-94

fate of nanoplastics in environment, 53-55 impact on aquaculture and products, 86 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 49 Nephrops norvegicus, 104, 122 Nile red, fluorescent tagging with, 93 Nitric acid (HN03), 107, 126 Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 56 Non-marine source of consumption, 87 Non-monotonic dose responses (NMDR), 166 Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), 25

О

Oceanographic modeling, 52 Ocean, plastics in, 160-163 Oil extraction, 93

Optical vibrational spectroscopy, 93 Oral route, 9-10

Organochlorine POPs (OC POPs), 154 Oxidizing agents, 108, 128 “Oxodegradable” plastic products, 171

P

Pacific krill, 162

Pelagic plastics, 28

Perchloric acid (НСЮ4), 107, 127

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), 153, 165

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 165

Peroxodisulfate potassium (IGSiOg), 128 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 54,

151, 160

current scenario, 153-154 future prospects, 154-155 health and environmental effects, 154 sources and persistence, 152-153 Persorption method, uptake by, 88 Pesticides, 121 Peyer’s patches, 88 Pharmaceuticals, 121

Physeter macrocephalus, see Sperm whales Physical adsorption, 190 Phytoplankters, 24

Plants, micro/nanoplastics effects on, 5-6 Plasma pyrolysis technology, 33-34 Plastarch material (PSM), 31 Plastic(s), 3, 16, 47, 84, 184 effective plastic isolation, 135 evolution of world plastic production, 17 global plastic production, 4 increment in thickness of plastic films, 32 litter in aquatic environment, 17 marine litter, 160 materials, 205 in ocean, 160-163

proportion of plastics among marine debris worldwide, 20

and related chemical contamination and impacts, 160-170 sheets, 21 shopping bags, 32 substrates, 28

tracking “missing” plastic, 53-54 types of plastics and common use, 16 waste, 48

Plastic debris, 23, 152 entanglement effect, 21 marine organisms ingesting, 21 peer-reviewed studies, 26-27 Plastic Disclosure Project, 171 Plasticware, 30

Plastic waste in aquatic ecosystem, 18-19 impacts, 19-29

management and preventive measures, 29-34

pathways and modes of movement for plastic in marine environment, 19 prevention and control, 29-30 Plastic Waste Management Rules, 56 Polyamide (PA), 49, 107, 127, 207 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 55, 91, 152-153, 164, 190,193 Polycarbonate (PC), 107-108, 127, 193

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 29, 55, 85, 152-153, 164, 190

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD),

55, 152

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), 55, 152 Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs),

164-165

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 55, 85, 152, 154, 190 Polyester, 107, 127

Polyethylene (PE), 16, 49, 52, 107, 127, 207 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 16, 49,

' 160/я, 184,207

Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), 165 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), 184 Polylactic acid (PLA), 31 Polylactides (PLA), 184 Polymer, 47

degradation, 18 verification, 131-132, 135-136 Polypropylene (PP), 16, 49, 108, 127, 160fn, 184, 207

Polystyrene (PS), 49, 107, 127, 160fn, 184, 207

Polyurethane (PU), 207

Polyurethane (PUR), 184, 193

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 49

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 29, 49, 108, 127,

' 153, 160/я, 184, 193,207 Pore-filling processes, 190 Pre-produced plastics, 136 Predators, 120

Primary microplastics, 49-50, 84, 207 Probabilistic model, 52 Procellariformes, 23 Public awareness, 30

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy (Pyr-GC-MS), 131

R

Raman spectroscopy, 93, 131 Recycling of plastics through environmentally sound manners, 30-31 Reptiles, 25

Room temperature (RT), 109 S

Sample processing and analysis, contamination during, 132

Sample storage, 104, 123 Sampling bias controlling, 134-135 Sampling of macrozoobenthos, 75 Sampling of microplastics, 50-51, 103

field-collected organisms, 103-104, 122-123 laboratory-exposed organisms, 104-105,123

Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), 130 Scanning electron microscopy, and energy- dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), 187 Sciades berbergii, 209 Scleractinian corals (Dipsastrea pallida),

107, 127

Secondary microplastics, 50, 84, 207 emission by different sources, 85 Sedimentation technique, 92 Sediment sampling, 51 Shore crab (Carcinus maenas), 121 Small Island Developing States (SIDS), 163 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 107, 126 Sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO), 108, 128 Solvents, 121

Sorbent organic matter (SOM), 166 Spatial variation of microplastics, 52-53 Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), 25 Stellifer

S. brasilliensis, 209 S. stellifer, 209 Stockholm Convention, 165 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 54-55 Stratum corneum, 10

Sub-micrometer plastics, biological effects of, 194-195

Substitute It Now! List (SIN List), 164/w Subtropical gyres, 52 Synthetic polymers, degradation routes of, 18

T

Temperature effect, 109 Temporal variation of microplastics, 52-53 Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 164 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 8-TCDD), 3, 7, 153 Thermal analysis, 93

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass

spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), 93-94 Toxaphene, 55

Toxicological pathways of fragmented plastics, 90-91

Transport ofMPs, 188 Tributyltin, 62, 165

U

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 54-55, 121,211 United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), 48

Uptake and translocation of fragmented plastics, 87-88

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 153

V

Visual identification, 130 W

Waste disaster, 163 Waste Stock Exchange (WSE), 31 Waste water treatment plants (WWTP), 161-162,206

Water flea (Daphnia magna), 120, 191 World Health Organization (WHO), 153 Wrack, 28

Y

Young male pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), 24

Z

Zebrafish (Danio rerio), 191 Zooplanktivorous organisms, 54 Zooplankton, 167 ZooScan, 130

 
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