Crop Residue Management for Improving Soil Carbon Storage, Nutrient Availability, and Fertilizer Use Efficiency

Bhupinder Pal Singh, Bijay-Singh, Sarah R. Noack, Yunylng Fang, Promil Mehra, Kathryn Page, and Yash P. Dang

CONTENTS

  • 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................30
  • 3.2 Crop Residue Management Strategies: Agronomic Implications...........................................31
  • 3.2.1 Soil and Moisture Conservation.................................................................................31
  • 3.2.2 Agricultural Operations..............................................................................................33
  • 3.2.3 Nutrient Management.................................................................................................33
  • 3.3 Crop Residue Management and Soil Carbon Dynamics........................................................34
  • 3.3.1 Crop Residue Management, Tillage Systems and Soil Carbon Storage.....................34
  • 3.3.2 Integrated Crop Residue and Fertilizer Management for Soil Carbon Storage.........35
  • 3.3.2.1 Priming Effect on Native Soil Organic Matter under Integrated

Nutrient and Residue Management..............................................................35

3.3.2.2 Impact of Fertilizer Nutrient Inputs on Microbial Use Efficiency

and Formation of Soil Organic Matter........................................................36

  • 3.3.3 Other Factors Impacting Soil Carbon Dynamics in Agricultural Systems................36
  • 3.3.3.1 Crop Residue Quality...................................................................................37
  • 3.3.3.2 Soil Type and Climate.................................................................................37
  • 3.4 Crop Residue Management and Soil Nitrogen Dynamics......................................................37
  • 3.4.1 Nitrogen Mineralization-Immobilization Turnover in Crop Residue Amended

Soils............................................................................................................................38

  • 3.4.2 Plant Availability of Nitrogen in Soil as Influenced by Crop Residue Management.......40
  • 3.4.2.1 Crop Residue Management and N Nutrition of Crops Grown under

Aerobic (Upland) Soil Conditions...............................................................40

3.4.2.2 Crop Residue Management and N Nutrition of Rice Grown under

Anaerobic (Lowland) Soil Conditions.........................................................41

  • 3.4.2.3 Placement of Crop Residues in the Soil and N Availability to Crops.........41
  • 3.4.2.4 Losses of Inorganic Nitrogen from the Soil-Plant System Amended

with Crop Residues......................................................................................42

3.4.3 Fertilizer Nitrogen Management under Different Tillage and Crop Residue

Management Scenarios...............................................................................................42

  • 3.4.3.1 Changes in Fertilizer N Requirements with Residue Management.............42
  • 3.4.3.2 Timing of Fertilizer N Application to Crops Grown in Residue

Amended Soils.............................................................................................43

3.4.3.3 Fertilizer N Placement Effects in Crops Grown under Conservation

Tillage Systems............................................................................................43

  • 3.5 Crop Residue Management and Soil Phosphorus Dynamics.................................................44
  • 3.5.1 Crop Residue Phosphorus...........................................................................................44
  • 3.5.1.1 Release of Soluble Residue Phosphorus.......................................................44
  • 3.5.1.2 Microbial Processing of Crop Residues.......................................................45
  • 3.5.1.3 Sorption of Phosphorus Released from Crop Residues in Soils..................46
  • 3.5.2 Crop Residue Management and Phosphorus Availability in Soil...............................47
  • 3.5.2.1 Timing and Quantity of Phosphorus Release from Crop Residues.............47
  • 3.5.2.2 Effect of Tillage and Residue Management on the Release of

Phosphorus from Crop Residues and Native Soil Reserves.........................47

3.5.3 Fertilizer Phosphorus Management under Tillage and Residue Management

Systems.......................................................................................................................49

  • 3.6 Crop Residue Management and Soil Sulfur and Potassium Dynamics..................................49
  • 3.6.1 Sulfur..........................................................................................................................49
  • 3.6.2 Potassium....................................................................................................................50
  • 3.7 Conclusions and Future Research Needs................................................................................51

References........................................................................................................................................53

 
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