Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography:Technology and Applications


I: Spectral, Dual-Energy CT: Clinical Perspective and ApplicationsSpectral Imaging Technologies and Apps and Dual-Layer Detector SolutionCONTENTSIntroductionSpectral TheoryDifferences Between Different DECT TechnologiesSpectral ResultsConventional ResultMonoE XX keVEffective ZIodine DensityVirtual Non-Contrast (VNC)ReferencesClinical Applications of Dual Energy CT in NeuroradiologyCONTENTSIntroductionFundamental PrinciplesDECT Technology ImplementationsSequential ScanningBeam Filtration DECTDual Source CTRapid Energy Switching DECTLayered Detector DECTPhoton Counting CTRadiation Dose for Different ImplementationsImage ProcessingApplications of DECT in NeuroimagingMaterial DecompositionVirtual Monochromatic ImagesQuantitative ImagingConclusionReferencesClinical Perspective on Dual Energy Computed TomographyCONTENTSDual Energy Computed TomographyAbdominal ImagingRenalPancreasCerebrovascular ImagingDistinguishing Enhancing Tumor from Acute HemorrhageHemorrhage Transformation of Stroke from Background ContrastCalcium and Bone SubtractionCardiac and Vascular ImagingCalcium Score CalculationCharacterization of Atherosclerotic PlaqueAcute Chest PainAssessment of Coronary StenosisMusculoskeletal ImagingGout Imaging-Urate Detection and AnalysisBone Marrow Edema DetectionCollagen Analysis: Ligaments, Tendons, and Intervertebral DiscsFuture ApplicationsArtefact ReductionMetallic ProsthesisIntracranial ProsthesisPixel Mis-Registration in Conventional CTCoronary StenosisOncology ImagingImproved Lesion CharacterizationImproved Lesion ConspicuityEvaluation of Tumor Response to TherapyOncology-Related ComorbiditiesSafety and DECTMinimizing Contrast Media RiskEffective Dose ReductionConclusionReferencesII: Spectral, Photon-Counting CT: Clinical Perspective and ApplicationsImaging of the Breast with Photon-Counting DetectorsCONTENTSBrief Overview of X-Ray Breast Imaging Benefits of Photon-Counting Detectors Vs. Energy Integrating Detectors in Breast Imaging Systems Reduction of Electronic Noise Energy Weighting Material Decomposition Detector Design Requirements for Breast Imaging Systems Count-Rate Requirements Detector Pixel Size Requirements and Tradeoffs Breast Imaging Applications Using Photon-Counting Detectors Estimation of Breast Density Classification of Microcalcifications Discrimination Between Solid Masses and Cysts Disclosure and AcknowledgmentsReferencesClinical Applications of Photon-Counting Detector Computed TomographyCONTENTSIntroductionPCD-CT Data SetsI: Benefits of PCD-CTReduced Electronic NoiseImproved Iodine CNR and Dose EfficiencyBeam Hardening/Metal Artifact ReductionUltra-High Resolution Imaging Using Photon-Counting DetectorsSimultaneous High-Resolution and Multi-Energy CTPCD-CT of Novel CT Contrast AgentsII: Potential Impacts on Clinical CT PracticeMusculoskeletal (MSK) ImagingVascular ImagingThoracic ImagingNeuroimagingConclusion and OutlookReferencesClinical Perspectives of Spectral Photon-Counting CTCONTENTSIntroductionPotential Clinical ApplicationsHigh-Resolution Lung ImagingPerfusion Organ ImagingAtherosclerosis ImagingSimultaneous Multiphase CT ImagingContrast Agent ImagingMolecular ImagingConclusionReferencesSpectral CT Imaging Using MARS ScannersCONTENTSSpectral Molecular CT Imaging: Concept and BackgroundMARS ScannerPreclinical Applications of MARS ImagingBone Health – OsteoporosisCartilage Health – OsteoarthritisCrystal-Induced ArthropathiesBone Imaging with Metal ImplantsCancer Imaging with NanoparticlesCardiovascular Disease and Atheroma ImagingRecent AdvancementsReferencesAdvances in and Uses of Contrast Agents for Spectral Photon Counting Computed TomographyCONTENTSIntroductionGoldIodineGadoliniumYtterbiumHafniumTantalumBismuthDiscussionAcknowledgmentsReferencesClinical Applications of Spectral Computed Tomography: Enabling Technique for Novel Contrast Development and Targeting ImagingCONTENTSIntroductionSPCCT Contrast Media RequirementsSPCCT and Contrast MediaSPCCT and Iodine Based Contrast AgentsSPCCT Potential for Selective ImagingSPCCT and Nanoscale Contrast AgentsLiposomal Contrast AgentsMicellesSPCCT and Targeting NanoparticlesGold Containing Targeting NanoparticlesSPCCT and Alternative Contrast Media ApplicationsSPCCT ChallengesSummaryReferencesIII: Photon-Counting Detectors for Spectral CTX-Ray Detectors for Spectral Photon Counting CTCONTENTSIntroductionDirect ConversionAbsorptionSemiconductor Dark CurrentDynamic PolarizationSignal FormationCharge Cloud FormationCharge CollectionImage Pixels and Small Pixel EffectE-Field FocusingSplit ChargeSimulation of Combined EffectsSmall PixelsReferencesCONTENTSIntroductionPhoton-Counting X-Ray DetectorsDissecting the Detector Response FunctionDetector Response FunctionNoise in the Sensor and Readout ASICCharge Sharing Between Neighboring PixelsFluorescence Effects in High-Z SemiconductorsPulse Pile-Up at High Photon FluxesRecombination and Trapping in the Semiconductor SensorCompton Scattering in the Sensor MaterialPolarization in High-Z Sensor MaterialsAbsorption Efficiency of the Semiconductor SensorDetector Health TrackingEnergy ResolutionQuantum EfficiencySpectral EfficiencyDead TimeImaging PerformanceSpectral Face-LiftingLarge Pixels with Fast Pulse ShapingCharge Sharing and Pile-Up RejectionCharge Summing ArchitecturesSummaryReferencesPhoton Counting Detectors Viewed as Nonlinear, Shift-Variant SystemsCONTENTSIntroductionPhoton CountingNonlinearity Resulting from Shift-VariancePhoton Counting versus Energy Integrating DetectorsRestoring Shift-InvarianceLarge PixelsInter-Pixel CommunicationEffects on Image QualityMaterial DecompositionSummary & OutlookReferencesSignal Generation in Semiconductor Detectors for Photon-Counting CTCONTENTSIntroductionX-Ray Interaction within a SemiconductorInitial Charge Cloud Generated by Photon InteractionsCharge TransportationShockley Ramo TheoremDetector ResponseSummaryReferencesApplication Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for Spectral Photon CountingCONTENTSIntroductionDirect ConversionASIC Readout Integrated CircuitsPixelated Detector DesignDetector Energy Resolution (ER)ASIC DesignAnalog Front EndCharge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA)Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC)Signal ShapingPeak DetectionASIC Operational IssuesThreshold EqualizationEnergy CalibrationCharge-Sharing CorrectionsPile-Up EffectsASIC Implementation ExamplesTimepix/Medipix Family from CERNChrom AIX Family from PhilipsKTH/Prismatic ASICASIC Performance ComparisonConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesChromAIX: Energy-Resolving Photon Counting Electronics for High-Flux Spectral CTCONTENTSIntroductionEnergy-Resolving Photon Counting ElectronicsChrom AIX2 Pixel DesignElectrical CharacterizationCharacterization with X-RaysSensor Charge Collection Time MeasurementsConclusionReferencesModeling the Imaging Performance of Photon Counting X-Ray DetectorsCONTENTSIntroductionPerformance Metrics for Linear Shift-Invariant Imaging SystemsImage SignalImage NoiseDetective Quantum EfficiencyModeling Signal and Noise in Photon-Counting X-Ray DetectorsGeneral Model of Signal Formation in Photon-Counting X-Ray DetectorsAverage Photon-Counting Image SignalEnergy-Response FunctionLarge-Area Gain and Energy-Bin Sensitivity FunctionsPre-Sampling Modulation Transfer FunctionPhoton-Counting Autocovariance and Noise Power SpectrumExample X-Ray Detection ModeLPDF of Detector Signals, pd1 (d1)Large-Area GainEnergy-Bin Sensitivity FunctionsPre-Sampling MTFsSummary and ProspectsReferencesCONTENTSIntroductionPCD Performance MetricsCount Rate CapabilityEnergy Response FunctionSpectral SeparationCounting EfficiencySystems Performance MetricsContrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR)Low-Contrast Detectability (LCD): Conventional and SpectralSpatial ResolutionArtifactsElectronic NoiseConverting from Detector Metrics to Systems MetricsPhoton Counting versus Energy IntegratingOptimization and Trade-OffsPixel SizeElectronic NoisePulse-Shaping TimePixel ThicknessAnti-Scatter GridsTechnologies to Improve PCD PerformanceCharge SummingDynamic Bowtie FiltersPulse Detection LogicNonlinear Reconstruction TechniquesK-Edge FiltersDiscussionAcknowledgmentReferencesPhoton Counting Detector Simulator: Photon Counting Toolkit (PcTK)CONTENTSIntroductionPcTKUse CasesUse Case 3 (PCD-CT Scan)ConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesIV: Image Reconstruction for Spectral CTImage Formation in Spectral Computed TomographyCONTENTSImage-Based DecompositionProjection-Based DecompositionDecomposition into Material ProjectionsOne-Step InversionForward Problem and Cost FunctionMinimizationRegularizationImage Quality Issues Specific to Spectral CTConclusionSpectral Distortion Compensation for Spectral CTCONTENTSIntroductionNotationsMaterial DecompositionSpectral Distortions in Photon Counting Detector (PCD)Conventional Compensation Schemes for PCD-CTMaximum Likelihood (ML)-Based EstimatorA-Table EstimatorPolynomial Fitting-Based EstimatorX-Ray Transmittance Modeling-Based Three-Step EstimatorX-Ray Transmittance ModelingThree-Step EstimatorTheoretical AnalysisPractical Implementations: Example of Two-Material DecompositionX-Ray Transmittance ModelingPruning ProcessBias Correction TablesNumerical ResultsDiscussionsReferencesNovel Regularization Method with Knowledge of Region Types and BoundariesCONTENTSIntroductionMethodsD Deburring Problem SettingForward System ModelingCost FunctionLikelihood ModelingPrior Distribution ModelingIterative Estimation AlgorithmReconstruction of 1D Blurred Image with JE-MAPExtention to PCD-CTEvaluation MethodsReconstruction and Tissue Type ClassificationQuantitative EvaluationEvaluation ResultsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesIndex
 
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