Concluding Remarks

This chapter outlined various key reactions in which sulphide minerals are oxidised and dissolved. There is no doubt that the aqueous oxidation and dissolution of sulphide minerals play important roles in the production of environmentally detrimental AMD. The generation of AMD may also be accompanied by release of toxic metals and metalloids to the environment.

From a number of research studies, the dissolution of sulphide minerals is usually proposed to be an electrochemical corrosion process with oxidants, such as Fe3+ or dissolved 02, being reduced at the sulphide mineral surface. Research has also shown that the oxidation of sulphide minerals by aqueous ferric iron generates significantly greater quantities of acid than the oxidation by oxygen. In fact, at low pPIs, the oxidation of some sulphide minerals such as pyrite by ferric iron has been found to be in the range of 10-100 times faster than by oxygen, thus making ferric iron a more effective oxidant than oxygen.


Acevedo, E, Gentina, J.C. and Valencia P. (2004). Optimisation of pulp density and particle size in the bioxidation of a pyritic gold concentrate by Sulfolobus metal- licus. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20: 865-869.

Adams, J.D., Pennington, P, McLemore, V.T., Wilson, G.W., Tachie-Menson, S. and Gutierrez, L.A.F. (2005). The role of microorganisms in acid rock drainage. Available at pdf [Accessed 2 December 2016].

Akcil, A. and Koldas, S. (2006). Acid mine drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production 14: 1139-1145.

АН, M. S. (2011). Remediation of acid mine waters. In: Rude, T.R., Freund, A. and Wolkersdorfer, C. (Editors), Mine Water - Managing the Challenges. 11th International Mine Water Association Congress, Aachen, Germany, pp. 253-258.

Andrews, L. and Merkle, R.K.W. (1999). Mineralogical factors affecting arsenopyrite oxidation rate during acid ferric sulphate and bacterial leaching of refractory gold ores. In: Amils, R. and Ballester, A. (Editors), Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century Issue Part A. Elsevier, New York, pp. 109-117.

Baba, A.A., Ayinla, K.I., Adekola, F.A., Ghosh, M.K., Ayanda, O.S., Bale, R.B., Sheik, A.R. and Pradhan, S.R. (2012). A review on novel techniques for chalcopyrite ore processing. International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing 1(1): 1-16

Banks, D., Younger, P.L., Arnesen, R.T., Iversen, E.R. and Banks, S.B. (1997). Mine- water chemistry: the good, the bad and the ugly. Environmental Geology 32: 157-174.

Becker, M., de Villiers, J. and Bradshaw, D. (2010). The flotation of magnetic and nonmagnetic pyrrhotite from selected nickel ore deposits. Minerals Engineering 23:1045-1052.

Biegler, T. and Swift, D.A. (1979). Anodic electrochemistry of chalcopyrite. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 9: 545-554.

Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., Jambor, J.L. and Weisener, C.J. (2003). The geochemistry of acid mine drainage. Treatise on Geochemistry 9:149-204.

Bobeck, G.E. and Su, H. (1985). The kinetics of dissolution of sphalerite in ferric chloride solution. Metallurgical Transactions В (16b): 413-424.

Brierley, J.A. and Brierley, C.L. (2001). Present and future commercial applications of biohydrometallurgy. Hydrometallurgy 59: 233-239.

Buckley, A.N. and Woods, R.W. (1984). An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of the oxidation of galena. Applied Surface Science 17: 401-414.

Buzzi, D.C., Viegas, L.S., Rodrigues, M.A.S., Bernardes, A.M. and Tenorio, J.A.S. (2013). Water recovery from acid mine drainage by electrodialysis. Minerals Engineering 4: 82-89.

Corkhill, C.L. and Vaughan, D.J. (2009). Arsenopyrite oxidation - a review. Applied Geochemistry 24: 2342-2361.

Craig, J.R. and Vokes, F.M. (1993). The metamorphism of pyrite and pyritic ores: an overview. Mineralogical Magazine 57,3-18.

Crundwell, F.K. (1988). Effect of iron impurity in zinc sulfide concentrates on the rate of dissolution. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal 34(7): 1128-1134.

Dold, B. (2010). Basic concepts in environmental geochemistry of sulphide mine waste management. In: Kumar, E.S. (Editor), Waste Management. In-Tech, Rijeka, pp. 173-198.

Dold, B. (2014). Evolution of acid mine drainage formation in sulphidic mine tailings. Minerals 2014 4(3): 621-641.

Dos Santos, E.C., Lourenqo, M.R, Pettersson, L.G. M. and Duarte, H. A. (2017). Stability, structure, and electronic properties of the pyrite/arsenopyrite solid-solid interface - a DFT study. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121: 8042-8051.

Drewniak, L. and Sklodowska, A. (2013). Arsenic-transforming microbes and their role in biomining processes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20: 7728-7739.

Dutrizac J. E. and MacDonald R. J. C. (1973). The effect of some impurities on the rate of chalcopyrite dissolution. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly 12(4): 409-420.

Edwards, K.J., Bond, P.L., Druschel, G.K., McGuire, M.M., Hamers, R.J. and Banfield, J.F. (2000). Geochemical and biological aspects of sulfide mineral dissolution: lessons from Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology 169: 383-397.

Ekmekqi, Z., Becker, M. and Tekes, E. (2010). The relationship between the electrochemical, mineralogical and flotation characteristics of pyrrhotite samples from different Ni ores. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 647:133-143.

Esparia, J.S. (2008). Acid mine drainage in the Iberian pyrite belt: an overview with special emphasis on generation mechanisms, aqueous composition and associated mineral phases. Available at maclal0/Maclal0_34.pdf [Accessed 4 December 2016].

Evans, S. and Raftery, E. (1982). Electron spectroscopic studies of galena and its oxidation by microwave-generated oxygen species and by air. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 78: 3545-3560.

Fleet, M.E. and Mumin, A.H. (1997). Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and marcasite and arsenopyrite from Carlin Trend Gold Deposits and Laboratory Synthesis. American Mineralogist 82:182-193.

Fornasiero, D., Li F., Ralston J. and Smart, R.S.C. (1994). Oxidation of galena surfaces. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 164: 333-344.

Fox, D., Robinson, C. and Zentilli, M. (1997). Pyrrhotite and associated sulphides and their relationship to acid rock drainage in the Halifax Formation, Meguma Group, Nova Scotia. Atlantic Geology 33: 87-103.

Fripp, J., Ziemkiewicz, PF. and Charkavorki, H. (2000). Acid mine drainage treatment. EMRRP-SR-14. Available at srl4.pdf [Accessed 7 December 2013].

IGS. (2011). Pyrite: Fool's gold. Available at Pyrite_card.pdf [Accessed 12 April 2020].

Jambor, J.L. and Blowes, D.W. (1998). Theory and applications of mineralogy in environmental studies of sulfide-bearing mine waste. In: Cabri, L.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (Editors), Short Course Handbook on Ore and Environmental Mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of Canada, Nepean, pp. 367-401.

Jambor, J.L., Ptacek, C.J., Blowes, D.W. and Moncur, M.C. (2005). Acid drainage from the oxidation of iron sulfides and sphalerite in mine wastes. In: Fujisawa, T. (Editor), Proceedings from: Lead and Zinc '05, Vol. 1, The Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan, Japan.

Kartio, I., Laajalehto, K., Kaurila, T. and Suoninen, E. (1996). A study of galena (PbS) surfaces under controlled potential in pH 4.6 solution by synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. Applied Surface Science 93:167-177.

Kim, B. S., Hayes, R.A., Prestidge, C.A., Ralston, J. and Smart, R.S.C. (1995). Scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of galena: the mechanisms of oxidation in aqueous solution. Langmuir 11: 2554-2562.

King, H.M. (2020a). Pyrite. Available at [Accessed 12 April 2020].

King, H.M. (2020b). Sphalerite. Available at shtml [Accessed 14 April 2020].

Kodali, B., Rao, M.B., Narasu, M.L. and Pogaku, R. (2004). Effect of biochemical reactions in enhancement of rate of leaching. Chemical Engineering Science 59: 5069-5073.

Li, Y., Qian, G., Brown, P.L. and Gerson, A.R. (2017). Chalcopyrite dissolution: scanning photoelectron microscopy examination of the evolution of sulfur species with and without added iron or pyrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 212: 33-47.

Lin, Z. (1997). Mineralogical and chemical characterization of wastes from a sulfuric acid industry in Falun Sweden. Environmental Geology 30:153-162.

Lowson, R.T. (1982). Aqueous oxidation of pyrite by molecular oxygen. Chemical Reviews 82 (5): 461-497.

Mamedov, E.A., Ahmed, E.I. and Chiragov, M.I. (2012). Mineralogy character and types of the coper-gold-sulphide mineralization of El Samra area, Kid belt, in South Eastern Sina, Egypt. International Journal of Advanced and Technical Research 2(6): 48-61

McGraw-Hill Encylopedia. (1998). Encylopedia of Science and Technology. Longman, Tokyo.

Mok, W.M. and Wai, C.M. (1994). Mobilization of arsenic in contaminated river waters. In: Nriagu, J.O. (Editor), Arsenic in the Environment. Part I Cycling and Characterization. John Wiley Interscience, New York.

Nazari, G. and Asselin, E. (2009) Morphology of chalcopyrite leaching in acidic ferric sulfate media. Hydrometallurgy 96:183-188.

Ndlovu, S. (2008). Biohydrometallurgy for sustainable development in the African mineral industry. Hydrometallurgy 91: 20-27.

Nesbitt, H.W., Muir, I.J. and Pratt, A.R. (1995). Oxidation of arsenopyrite by air and air-saturated, distilled water and implications for mechanisms of oxidation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59,1773-1786.

Nestor, D., Valdivia, U. and Chaves, A. P. (2001). Mechanisms of bioleaching of a refractory mineral of gold with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. International Journal of Mineral Processing 62:187-198.

Nicholson, R.V. and Scharer, J.M. (1994). Laboratory studies of pyrrhotite oxidation kinetics. In Environmental Geochemistry of Sulphide Oxidation. In: Alpers, C.N. and Blowes, D.W. (Editors), Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp. 14-30.

Nordstrom, D.K. and Alpers, C.N. (1999). Geochemistry of acid mine waters. In: Plumlee, G.S. and Logsdon, M.J. (Editors), The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, CO, pp. 133-156.

Ogwata, С. M and Onwughalu, M. K. (2019). Occurrence of galena and its potentials for economic and green energy revolution in Nigeria. Iconic Research and Engineering Journals 3(1): 139-142.

Prasad, D. and Henry, J.G. (2009). Removal of sulphates acidity and iron from acid mine drainage in a bench scale biochemical treatment system. Environmental Technology 30(2): 151-160.

Rafferty, J.R (2020). Fool's gold, iron pyrite. In: Augustyn, A., Bauer, R, Duignan, B., Eldridge, A., Gregersen, E., McKenna, A., Petruzzello, M., Rafferty, J.P., Ray, M., Rogers, K., Tikkanen, A., Wallenfeldt, J., Zeidan, A. and Zelazko A. (Editors), Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at acanthite [Accessed 12 April 2020].

Rimstidt, J.D., Chermak, J.A. and Gagen, PM. (1994). Rates of reaction of galena, spalerite, chalcopyrite, and asenopyrite with Fe(III) in acidic solutions. In: Alpers, C.N. and Blowes, D.W. (Editors), Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp. 2-13.

Ritchie, A.I.M. (1994). Sulfide oxidation mechanisms: controls and rates of oxygen transport. In: Jambor, J.L. and Blowes D.W. (Editors), Short Course Handbook on Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Mine-Waste. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Nepean, pp. 201-244.

Ritchie, A.I.M. (2003). Oxidation and gas transport in piles of sulphidic material. In: Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W. and Ritchie, A.I.M. (Editors), Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series Volume 31, Vancouver, British Columbia, pp. 73-94.

Rossi, G. (1990). Biohydrometallurgy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Satur, J., Hiroyoshi, N., Tsunekawa, M., Ito, M. and Okamoto, H. (2007). Carrier- microencapsulation for preventing pyrite oxidation. International Journal of Mineral Processing 83:116-124.

Saxe, J. K., Bowers, T. S. and Reid, K. R. (2010). Arsenic. In: Morrison, R. D. and Murphy, L. (Editor), Environmental Forensics: Contaminant Specific Guide. Elsevier, Inc., New York, pp. 279-292.

Shapter, J. G., Brooker M. H. and Skinner W. M. (2000). Observation of oxidation of galena using Raman spectroscopy. International Journal of Mineral Processing 60:199-211.

Simate, G. S. and Ndlovu, S. (2014). Acid mine drainage: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2 (3): 1785-1803.

Singer, PC. and Stumm, W. (1970). Acidic mine drainage: the rate-determining step. Science 167:1121-1123.

Skousen, J., Rose, A., Geidel, G., Foreman, J., Evans, R. and Hellier, W. (1998). Handbook of Technologies for Avoidance and Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage. The National Mine Land Reclamation Centre, West Virginia University, West Virginia.

Stanton, M.R., Taylor, C.D., Gemery-Hill, PA. and Shanks III, W.C. (2006). Laboratory studies of sphalerite decomposition: applications to the weathering of mine wastes and potential effects on water quality. Available at https://www.asmr. us/Portals/0/Documents/Conference-Proceedings/2006/2090-Stanton.pdf [Accessed 15 April 2020].

Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J. (1996). Aquatic Chemistry: Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. Willey-Interscience, New York.

TMM. (2014). Pyrite (fool's fold): It's for collectors, not for fools. Available at http:// [Accessed 12 April 2020].

Udayabhanu, S. G. and Prasad, B. (2010). Studies on environmental impact of acid mine drainage generation and treatment: an appraisal. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 30(11): 953-967

Vaughan, D. }., England, K.E.R., Kelsall, G.H. and Yin, Q. (1995). Electrochemical oxidation of chalcopyrite (CuFeS>) and the related metal-enriched derivatives Cu4Fe5S8, Cu4Fe(,S16/ and CuqFesS1(). American Mineralogist 80: 725-731.

Wang, H. and Salveson, I. (2005). A review on the mineral chemistry of the non- stoichiometric iron sulphide, Fe(]_x) (0 < x < 0.125): polymorphs, phase relations and transitions, electronic and magnetic structures. Phase Transitions 78(7-8): 547-567.

Zdun, T. (2001). Modelling the hydrodynamics of collie mining void 5B. MSc Dissertation, University of Western Australia, Australia.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >