Recovery Processes and Utilisation of Valuable Materials from Acid Mine Drainage

The problems of AMD, which include contamination of groundwater and surface water, are growing exponentially. Whilst a wide range of technologies are available for preventing AMD generation and/or treating AMD before discharge as illustrated in Part II of the book, most of these technologies consider AMD as a nuisance that needs to be quickly disposed after the minimum required treatment. However, in the recent past, there has been an emerging worldwide paradigm towards environmental responsibility and sustainable development. In fact, the reuse, recycle and recovery of industrially useful materials and products are the emerging pragmatic approaches to mitigating the challenges associated with AMD. Therefore, the main focus of this part of the book is to bring together a number of studies in which novel methods have been developed for the reuse, recycle and recovery of industrially useful materials from AMD.

Recovery Processes and Utilisation of Valuable Materials from Acid Mine Drainage

Geoffrey S. Simate CONTENTS

  • 9.1 Introduction................................................................................................187
  • 9.2 Recovery of Metals....................................................................................187
  • 9.2.1 Settling and Sedimentation..........................................................189
  • 9.2.1.1 Concepts of Settling and Sedimentation.....................189
  • 9.2.1.2 Typical Studies of Settling and Sedimentation...........190
  • 9.2.1.3 Recovery of Metals from the Sedimentation

Sludge................................................................................192

  • 9.2.1.4 Summary..........................................................................193
  • 9.2.2 Selective Precipitation...................................................................193
  • 9.2.2.1 Concepts of Selective Precipitation...............................193
  • 9.2.22 Typical Studies of Selective Precipitation....................194
  • 9.2.2.3 Summary..........................................................................200
  • 9.2.3 Selective Adsorption.....................................................................200
  • 9.2.3.1 Concepts of Selective Adsorption.................................200
  • 9.2.3.2 Selected Typical Studies of Selective Adsorption......201
  • 9.2.3.3 Summary..........................................................................209
  • 9.2.4 Ion Exchange..................................................................................210
  • 9.2.4.1 Concepts of Ion Exchange..............................................210
  • 9.2.4.2 Selected Typical Studies of Ion Exchange....................211
  • 9.2.4.3 Summary..........................................................................216
  • 9.2.5 Electrochemical Treatment...........................................................216
  • 9.2.5.1 Concepts of Electrochemical Treatment......................216
  • 9.2.5.2 Selected Typical Studies of Electrochemical

Treatment.........................................................................221

  • 9.2.5.3 Summary..........................................................................232
  • 9.3 Recovery of Water......................................................................................232
  • 9.3.1 Recovery of Water Using Membrane Technology.....................233
  • 9.3.1.1 Concepts of Membrane Technology.............................233
  • 9.3.1.2 Selected Typical Studies of Pressure-Driven

Membrane Technology...................................................235

9.3.2 Recovery of Water Using Other Membrane

Technologies...................................................................................239

9.3.2.1 Concepts of Electrodialysis and Membrane

Distillation Technologies...............................................239

9.3.2.2 Selected Typical Studies of Electrodialysis and

Membrane Distillation Technologies...........................241

9.3.3 Selected Commercially Developed Projects

for Recovery of Water from Acid Mine Drainage.....................247

9.3.4 Proposed Integrated Processes and Technologies for

Recovery of Water from Acid Mine Drainage...........................250

  • 9.4 Recovery of Acid........................................................................................251
  • 9.4.1 Introduction....................................................................................251
  • 9.4.2 Selected Typical Studies of Recovery of Acid from Acid

Mine Drainage................................................................................252

  • 9.5 Generation of Electricity from Acid Mine Drainage............................262
  • 9.5.1 Introduction....................................................................................262
  • 9.5.2 Selected Typical Studies of the Generation of Electricity

from Acid Mine Drainage.............................................................263

  • 9.6 Production of Water Treatment Raw Materials.....................................267
  • 9.6.1 Production of Adsorbents.............................................................267
  • 9.6.1.1 Introduction.....................................................................267
  • 9.6.1.2 Selected Typical Studies of the Use of Acid

Mine Drainage Sludge as Adsorbents..........................267

  • 9.6.2 Production of Coagulants and Flocculants................................269
  • 9.6.2.1 Introduction.....................................................................269
  • 9.62.2 Selected Typical Studies of the Use of Acid

Mine Drainage as Coagulants and Flocculants..........270

  • 9.7 Utilisation of Acid Mine Drainage Sludge.............................................273
  • 9.7.1 Introduction....................................................................................273
  • 9.7.2 Selected Typical Studies of the Reuse of Acid Mine

Drainage Sludge.............................................................................273

  • 9.7.2.1 Production of Fertiliser..................................................273
  • 9.7.22 Production of Iron Pigments.........................................275
  • 9.7.2.3 Building and Construction Related Materials............276
  • 9.7.2.4 Material for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration................277
  • 9.7.2.5 Stabilisation of Contaminated Soil...............................279
  • 9.72.6 Covers in the Prevention of Acid Mine

Drainage...........................................................................281

  • 9.8 Production of Nanoparticles from Acid Mine Drainage.....................283
  • 9.8.1 Introduction....................................................................................283
  • 9.8.2 Selected Typical Studies of Production of Nanoparticles

from Acid Mine Drainage.............................................................284

9.9 Concluding Remarks.................................................................................288

References.............................................................................................................290

 
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