Metal Toxicology Handbook

Role of Metals and Metalloids in Redox BiologyIntroductionIronLeadMercuryCadmiumChromiumManganeseCopperZincArsenicConcluding RemarksReferencesRole of Metals in NeurodegenerationIntroductionEssential MetalsCopperIronManganeseZincNon-Essential MetalsAluminumArsenicCadmiumLeadMethylmercuryThalliumNeurotoxicity Induced by Metal MixtureMetal-Induced Neurotoxicity and TreatmentConclusions and Future DirectionsReferencesII: Pathology of Metal ToxicityPathological Manifestations and Mechanisms of Metal ToxicityGeneral IntroductionCentral and Peripheral Nervous SystemIntroductionAluminumArsenicLeadManganeseMercuryCadmiumImmune SystemIntroductionArsenicImmunosuppressionImmunomodulationCadmiumImmunosuppressionImmunomodulationMercuryImmunosuppressionImmunomodulationSensitization and AutoimmunityBerylliumSensitizationNickelImmunosuppressionSensitizationLeadImmunosuppressionAutoimmunityReproductive SystemIntroductionLeadCadmiumVanadiumGallium and IndiumLiverIntroductionArsenicCadmiumCopperIronKidneyIntroductionCadmiumMercuryLeadUraniumSummary and ConclusionsReferencesAn Overview of Heavy Metal Research in Traditional Chinese MedicineIntroductionAnalytical Methods for Heavy Metal Detection in TCMExternal and Internal Reasons for Heavy Metal Contamination of TCMInternational Standards Regarding Heavy Metals and Their Safety Limit in TCMDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesIII: Mechanisms of Restoring Metabolic HomeostasisDevelopment and Utilization of a Novel Prodosomed-Electrolyte and Phytochemical Formulation Technology to Restore Metabolic HomeostasisIntroductionSources of Dietary ElectrolytesElectrolyte Balance and Imbalance: Physiological ConsequencesKey Physiological Functions of Diverse ElectrolytesNervous SystemMuscle FunctioningHydration StatuspH HomeostasisConstituents for an Ideal Electrolyte Formulation and Its FunctionReference Daily Intake (RDI)ConclusionReferencesGut Microbiome and Heavy MetalsTerminologyGut Microbiome and Its CompositionFactors Modulating Gut MicrobiomeDysbiosis and EubiosisShort-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) and Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)EnterotypesViromeEffects of Heavy Metals on Gut MicrobiomeMercuryMicrobiome Modulation by MercuryArsenicPerturbation of the Gut Microbiome by ArsenicInfluence of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis-Induced by Arsenic and MercuryChromiumChromium and Human HealthEffects of Chromium on Gut MicrobiomeReduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Gut MicrobiomeCadmiumCadmium and Human HealthEffects of Cadmium on Gut MicrobiomeLeadLead and Human HealthLead and Gut MicrobiomeRole of Probiotics in Lead ToxicityConclusions and Future PerspectivesReferencesIV: Radionuclides ToxicityA Review on Radionuclide ToxicityIntroductionBasic Concepts about RadionuclidesDosimetry QuantitiesExternal and Internal ExposuresRadiological Protection for HumansRadiological Protection of the EnvironmentAcknowledgmentsReferencesV: Benefits of MetalsContribution of Bioavailable Silicon in Human HealthIntroductionDistribution and Prevalence of SiliconDietary SourcesDietary Silica IntakeSilicon Intake from PlantsBeveragesDietary SupplementsNon-Dietary SourcesZeolitesSilica Nanoparticles and MicroparticlesChemical Speciation of SiliconSilicon ChemistryAbsorption, Accumulation, and EliminationSilicon and Its Potential Health BenefitsBone Health and Skeletal DevelopmentSilicon at the Cellular and Molecular LevelVascular Disease and AtherosclerosisNeurodegenerative DiseaseDiabetesWound HealingToxicology of Silicon and SilicaChemical Forms Contributing to ToxicityRoutes of Exposure and SafetyInhalation and AsbestosisInhalation and SilicosisIngestion and Effect of Silica on the Intestinal TractMechanisms of ToxicityOxidative StressInflammationSummary and Future DirectionAbbreviationsReferencesBenefits of Trivalent Chromium in Human Nutrition?IntroductionChromium Picolinate and Body Mass GainDiabetes and Related ConditionsType 2 DiabetesPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)Depression and Related ConditionsPharmacological EffectsToxicityConclusionReferencesTrivalent Chromium: A Vital Insulin SensitizerGeneral Background of Trivalent ChromiumRole of Insulin Resistance in Many Medical PerturbationsPresence of Natural Dietary Supplemental Insulin SensitizersFocusing on More Facts Concerning Trivalent ChromiumPersistent Insulin Resistance, A Hindrance to Optimal Health over Many YearsFocusing on Bioavailability of Trivalent ChromiumOverview of Use of Chromium in a Variety of Health DisordersInsulin Resistance and Diabetes Type 2Overweight and ObesityBlood Pressure RegulationAgingReferencesDifferential Impact of Organic Vanadium Compounds on Human Health: Deficiency States, Toxic Effects, and Potential Therapeutic UseIntroductionVanadium Metabolism and Intracellular TransportVanadium Absorption, Distribution, and EliminationVanadium ToxicityVanadium as an Insulin SensitizerOther Biological Actions of VanadiumConclusionReferencesVanadium—Speciation Chemistry Can Be Important When Assessing Health Effects on Living SystemsIntroductionSpeciation of VanadiumMining and Industrial Applications of VanadiumEnvironmental Presence of VanadiumTherapeutic and Biomedical Developments with Vanadium CompoundsToxicity Studies Assessing Adverse Health EffectsRegulation of Vanadium in the Foods and the EnvironmentConclusion and FutureAcknowledgmentsReferencesVI: Toxic Manifestations by Diverse Heavy Metals and MetalloidsClinical Toxicology of Copper: Source, Toxidrome, Mechanism of Toxicity and ManagementIntroductionHistoryPropertiesUsesCommercialMedicalSources of CopperAirSoilWaterFood and Dietary SupplementsToxic DoseAcute (In Human)Acute (In Animals)Chronic (In Human)ToxicokineticsAbsorptionDistributionMetabolismEliminationMechanism of ToxicityClinical ManifestationsAcuteGastrointestinalCardiovascularRenalHematologicalHepaticCentral Nervous SystemMuscularRespiratoryDermalSystemicChronicDiagnosisBloodUrineHairManagementSupportive CareTreatmentAcuteChronicConclusionReferencesCadmium Exposure and ToxicityIntroductionExposure Sources, Limits, and Body Burden AssessmentDietary Sources of CadmiumUse and Misuse of TDS DataDietary Exposure and the Urinary Cadmium ThresholdOther Environmental GuidelinesAssessment of Cadmium Exposure and Body BurdenUrinary Cadmium as a Body Burden IndicatorEcological and Other Studies Demonstrating the Utility of Urinary CadmiumSwedenThe Torres Strait, AustraliaBritish Columbia, CanadaSummaryCadmium Absorption and Toxicity: The Interplay of Nutrition and GeneticsMetallothionein as Cadmium ReservoirMetal Transporters, Carriers, and ReceptorsFactors Affecting the Cadmium Absorption RateDietary FactorsIntestinal MetallothioneinMetals and Other Elements in the DietDeterminants of Body Burden of CadmiumLow Body Iron StoresThe H63D Variant of the HFE Hemochromatosis GeneZIP8 and ZIP14 Genetic VariantsZinc Intake and Cadmium ToxicitySelenium and Cadmium ToxicityZinc and Cadmium Toxicity in Ocular TissuesSummary of Dietary, Genetic, and Nutritional Influences of Cadmium ToxicityRenal Toxicity of CADMIUMEntry of Cd into the CirculationEntry of Cd into Tubular CellsMechanisms of Cd-Induced CytotoxicityFunctional Expressions of Cd-Induced NephrotoxicityImpaired Reabsorption of Small Filtered ProteinsRelease of Intracellular Proteins into Glomerular FiltrateImpaired Reabsorption of Substances Co-Transported with SodiumAltered Homeostasis of Zinc and CopperUrinary Excretion of CdNormalization of Excretion RatesCd Excretion and Glomerular Filtration RateSummary of the Renal Toxicity of CdSkeletal Toxicity of CdCd-Induced OsteomalaciaCd-Induced OsteoporosisSummary of the Skeletal Toxicity of CdCadmium Exposure, Chronic Kidney Disease, and MortalityEnvironmental Cadmium Exposure and CKDData from the United StatesData from Other PopulationsIncreased Susceptibility to Renal Cadmium Toxicity in DiabetesEnvironmental Cadmium Exposure and MortalityThe U.S. ExperienceThe Japan ExperienceOther PopulationsSummary of Cadmium-Linked CKD and Increased Mortality RiskCadmium and HypertensionEpidemiologic Studies on Cadmium-Associated HypertensionStudies in the United States and CanadaStudies in AsiaSummary of Epidemiologic Findings on Cadmium-Related HypertensionThe Kidney as the Regulator of Blood PressureInsights from Cadmium-Induced Hypertension in Experimental AnimalsLow-Dose, Lifelong Exposure ExperimentsHigh-Dose, Short-Term Exposure ExperimentsCd-Induced Hypertension and 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic AcidSummary of Cadmium and HypertensionOther End-Organ Effects and Implications for Risk AssessmentLiver and PancreasBlood Vessels, the Heart, and the BrainEyes and EarsImmunity and Pituitary-Thyroid AxisSummary of Multiple Toxicity Targets and Implications for Risk AssessmentAbbreviationsAcknowledgmentsAppendixReferencesCobalt Toxicity and Human HealthIntroductionCobalt ExposureEffect on Human HealthMetal-on-Metal ProsthesisHip ArthroplastyOral ProstheticCobalt NanoparticlesPotential Impact of Cobalt Nanoparticles on Human HealthConclusionReferencesCobalt ToxicityIntroductionHistoryCobalt ExposureEnvironmental ExposureOccupational ExposureMedical ExposureCobalt UsesApplication of Cobalt in Modern Industrial EraCobalt Role in Biomedical and Healthcare SystemCobalt MetabolismCobalt PathogenesisMetal ReactivityMetal AllergyMeasurement of Cobalt LevelsCobalt Level Measurement in Patients with Metal Hip ImplantsCobalt Foe or Friend?Cobalt DeficiencyCobalt ToxicityCardiac ToxicityRespiratory ToxicityDermatological ToxicityNeurological ToxicityEndocrine ToxicityHematological ToxicityCarcinogenic PotentialPsychiatric ToxicityRadioactive ToxicityReferencesIron-Siderophore and Tumorigenesis: Molecular Insight and Therapeutic TargetsIntroductionIron Metabolism in Normal CellsIron and CancerIron Uptake in CancerIron Storage in CancerIron Efflux in CancerTherapeutic Strategies Based on Iron DeprivationConclusionAbbreviationsReferencesClinical Toxicology of Iron: Source, Toxidrome, Mechanism of Toxicity, and ManagementIntroductionHistoryProperties (Physical and Chemical)Uses (Commercial and Biological)Sources of IronDietary SourcesToxic DoseToxicokineticsMechanism of ToxicityAcuteChronicClinical ManifestationsAcuteChronicDiagnosisManagementSupportive CareTreatmentConclusionCase StudyReferencesVanadium Toxicity Revisited: Striking the Right Balance between Potential New Generation Therapeutics and Adverse Side EffectsIntroductionChemical and Physical Properties of VanadiumEnvironmental Distribution of VanadiumAirSoilWaterFoodPhysiological Relevance of the ElementPortals of Vanadium EntryThrough Digestive TractThrough Respiratory TractToxicokinetics of VanadiumAbsorptionDistribution by Body FluidInterconversion between Various Oxidation States of VanadiumIntracellular Transport of VanadiumElimination/ExcretionToxic Effects of VanadiumMutagenic PotentialToxicity Linked to MetabolismHematological AbnormalitiesChanges in Respiratory SystemCardiovascular ChangesHepatic ChangesRenal ChangesImmunological ChangesNeurological ChangesEffect on Reproductive SystemTherapeutic and Pharmacological Potentials of VanadiumCoping with Vanadium Toxicity: The Challenges for the Future of Vanadium DrugsAcknowledgmentConflict of InterestReferencesThe Ubiquitous Lead—Biological Effects, Toxicity, and ManagementIntroductionBlood Lead LevelsAbsorption, Storage, and Excretion of LeadBiological Effects of LeadCentral Nervous SystemCardiovascular DiseaseOther SystemsMolecular Mechanisms Leading to Lead ToxicityManagement of Lead ToxicityConclusionReferencesLead Toxicity: An Overview of Its Pathophysiology and Intervention StrategiesIntroductionSources and Routes of Human ExposureGeneral Mechanism of ToxicityKinetics and MetabolismClinical FeaturesEffect on the Nervous SystemEffect on the Hematopoietic SystemEffect on Renal SystemEffect on Cardiovascular SystemEffect on the Reproductive SystemEffect on Hepatic SystemEffect on Other OrgansDiagnosisManagement StrategiesPreventionAntioxidantsVitaminsFlavonoidsHerbal AntioxidantsChelation TherapyConclusionReferencesArsenic Toxicity: Source, Mechanism, Global Health Complication, and Possible Way to DefeatIntroductionClinical Utilization of ArsenicAncient UsesRecent UsesChemistry of ArsenicSources of ArsenicMajor Arsenic MineralsRock-Forming MineralsSedimentary RocksSoilsContaminated Surficial DepositsThe AtmosphereAnthropogenic SourcesClinical Features of ArsenicAcute PoisoningChronic PoisoningSkinGastrointestinal SystemCardiovascular SystemNeurological SystemRespiratory SystemMalignant DiseaseMechanisms of Arsenic ToxicityPrevention, Management, and Subsequent RegulationsConclusionReferencesClinical Toxicology of Mercury: Source, Toxidrome, Mechanism of Toxicity, and ManagementIntroductionHistoryPropertiesUsesSources of MercuryNatural SourcesAnthropogenic SourcesSources of ExposureToxic DoseToxicityMinimum Lethal ExposureMechanism of ToxicityClinical ManifestationsAcute (In Human)Chronic (In Human)Chronic (In Animals)DiagnosisUrineBloodHairManagementSupportive CareTreatmentCase StudyReferencesAn Overview of Tungsten ToxicityIntroductionEnvironmental Concentrations and ExposureEnvironmental ExposureOccupational ExposureToxicokineticsInhalation ExposureOral ExposureAdverse Health EffectsCancerHard Metal DiseaseInteraction with Other MetalsConclusionsReferencesBoron Toxicity: An Insight on Its Influence on Wheat GrowthIntroductionB - An Essential Element for PlantsDifferent Roles of B in Plant MetabolismB Uptake and Translocation in WheatGenetic Variation in Wheat toward B Toxicity TolerancePhysiological and Biochemical Changes in Wheat under B ToxicityWheat QTLs Involved in B Toxicity ToleranceWheat Genes Expression: An Important Footstep in B Toxicity ToleranceConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesDiversity of Mechanisms for Boron Toxicity in MammalsIntroductionToxicity Related to KineticsToxicity in Murine SpeciesToxicity of BCC Used as Drugs in HumansToxicity Mechanisms and Their ImplicationsReferencesLithium: Is It Good or Bad for Plant Growth?IntroductionSources of Li Contamination in Agri-EnvironmentControversial Role of Li in Plant PhysiologyPositive Effects of Li on Plant MetabolismToxic Effects of Li on Plant MetabolismLi Toxicity Limits Plant GrowthLi Toxicity Reduces Photosynthesis in PlantsLi Toxicity Results in Oxidative DamageLi Toxicity Impairs Ionic Homeostasis in PlantsFuture Research PerspectiveConclusionReferencesAn Overview of Nickel Toxicity in PlantsEssentiality of Ni and Its Role in Plant Growth and DevelopmentIntroductionPlant Responses under Ni ToxicityPlant Growth and DevelopmentPhotosynthesis and Photosynthetic PigmentsMembrane Permeability and ROS ProductionConclusionReferencesCommentary A Treatise on Metal ToxicologyReferences
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