The tools of policy formulation

INTRODUCTIONPOLICY FORMULATION: ACTORS, PROCESSES AND VENUESActors: Who are the Policy Formulators?Policy Formulation Processes and TasksThe Venues of Policy FormulationTHE TOOLS OF POLICY FORMULATION The Analycentric Turn in Policy AnalysisThe Turn Away from Policy Formulation ToolsThe Turn Back to Policy Formulation ToolsFORMULATION TOOLS: TOWARDS A NEW SUB-FIELD OF POLICY ANALYSIS?The Literatures on Policy Formulation Tools: Taking StockRe-assembling the Field: A Definition and a TypologyAn Analytical FrameworkActorsVenuesCapacitiesEffectsPlan of this BookParticipatory assessment: tools for empowering, learning and legitimating?INTRODUCTIONORIGINS AND RATIONALES OF PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT TOOLSPARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT AND THE POLICY FORMULATION PROCESSPARTICIPATORY METHODS AND TOOLSStage 1: Agenda Setting and Problem ConceptualizationStage 2: Specification of Policy ObjectivesStage 3: Identification and Appraisal of Potential Policy OptionsStage 4: Decision MakingPARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT IN PRACTICECONCLUSIONSScenarios: tools for coping with complexity and future uncertainty?INTRODUCTIONSCENARIO USE IN THEORYUncertainty and Complexity: The Raison d'Etre of Scenarios as Policy Formulation ToolsThe Selection and Design of Scenarios as a Policy Formulation ToolSurprising FuturesWhat Policy Formulation Tasks do Scenarios Aim to Perform?What Expertise/Knowledge is Needed in Scenario Development?Links with Other Policy Formulation ToolsSCENARIOS: THEIR USE IN PRACTICEThe Historical Evolution of Scenarios as a Policy Influencing ToolThe Use of Scenarios in International Policy VenuesThe Use of Scenarios in National Policy VenuesCONCLUSIONSIndicators: tools for informing, monitoring or controlling?INTRODUCTION: INDICATORS AS GOVERNANCE TOOLSTYPES AND PURPOSES OF INDICATORSTypes of Indicators: Descriptive, Performance and CompositesIntended Functions of IndicatorsIndicators and Policy FormulationInstrumental, Conceptual and Political Functions of IndicatorsINDICATORS 'IN PRACTICE': ARE THEY USED AND DOES 'USE' IMPLY INFLUENCE?Indicator Use and Indicator InfluenceThe (Lack of) Intended Use of Indicators - and Ways of Enhancing UseInstitutionalization, Codification and Mandatory UseIndicator Constituencies?Beyond Intended Use: Unanticipated Consequences of IndicatorsTheoretical ApproachesTHE INFLUENCE OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: PARADOXES AND DILEMMASCONCLUSIONSComputerized models: tools for assessing the future of complex systems?INTRODUCTIONCOMPUTER MODELS AND THEIR PURPOSESMODELS AND POLICY FORMULATIONWhat Policy Formulation Tasks do Models Seek to Perform?How do Computerized Models Link to Other Policy Formulation Tools?WHAT KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE DO COMPUTER MODELS SEEK TO FEED INTO POLICY FORMULATION?BY WHOM, WHEN AND HOW ARE COMPUTER MODELS USED IN PRACTICE?Model Impact and Utility in 'Real World' Policy Formulation Activities?When and How are Computer Models Used in Practice?Practical Lessons Learned in the Matching Process of a Large Computer Modelling FrameworkCONCLUSIONSMulti-criteria analysis: a tool for going beyond monetization?INTRODUCTIONMAIN METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSISIdentifying Objectives and CriteriaIdentifying Policy Options to Achieve the Set of ObjectivesEvaluating Policy OptionsMulti-attribute Utility/Value MethodsOutranking MethodsInteractive MethodsSensitivity and Robustness AnalysisMULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS IN POLICY PRACTICEMulti-criteria Analysis: Its VenuesThe usersThe main policy areasFormal Requirements Prescribing MCAThe Reasons for Choosing MCAThe Quality and Legitimacy of Multi-criteria Analysis in PracticeOpening up the policy formulation process can increase or undermine the legitimacy of a MCA studyMCA results can be directly and indirectly policy-relevantCONCLUSIONCost-benefit analysis: a tool that is both useful and influential?INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS?What is Distinctive about Cost-Benefit Analysis as a Policy Formulation Tool?Policy Venues and Cost-Benefit AnalysisCost-Benefit Analysis and Other Decision Making ProceduresHOW AND WHERE DOES CBA WORK IN THE REAL WORLD?The Use and Quality of CBAThe Influence of CBADISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONSPolicy formulation tool use in emerging policy spheres: a developing country perspectiveINTRODUCTIONEMERGING PROSPECTS FOR TOOL USE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESTOOL USE BY GOVERNMENT MINISTRIESCost-Benefit Analysis in Dam Building PolicyThe design of CBAThe execution of CBAThe outcomes of CBAThe Use of Participatory Tools in Water Allocation PolicyKey issues in water allocation policyTool design for water allocation policyTool execution for water allocation policyThe outcome of using toolsTOOL USE BY INDEPENDENT REGULATORY AUTHORITIESThe Design of the Participatory ToolThe Execution of the Participatory ToolThe Policy Outcomes of Tariff RegulationsCONCLUSIONFUTURE PROSPECTSThe tools of policy formulation: new perspectives and new challengesINTRODUCTIONTHE TOOLS OF POLICY FORMULATION Definitions and TypologiesActorsVenuesVenues of use: by whom, for what purposes and in what form are tools used?Venues of use: what factors shape the selection and deployment of particular tools?CapacitiesEffectsTHEORIZING POLICY FORMULATION TOOLS: REASSEMBLING THE PIECESPolicy Formulation as RationalityPolicy Formulation as ControlPolicy Formulation Tools as InstitutionsCONCLUSIONS, NEW PERSPECTIVES AND NEW CHALLENGES
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