Concept of order in cultural internationalism

Hidden cultural order

In the process of order construction, the influence of power and economy remain so prominent that they sometimes cover up the contributions of culture. Although some scholars value culture's fundamental role in order construction, they rarely study it as an independent variable. Indeed, the period of cultural change is too long to study it dynamically. However, it is still necessary to regard cultural order as an independent variable in international politics, paying more attention to its relationship with political and economic order. As some scholars pointed out.

In human history, an order has rarely been established by political authority alone. In most cases, religion and ideology also play an essential part in stabilizing the order. ... ideology can naturally transform its own obligatory requirements into a conscious pursuit of noble and happy life among its followers, which means that it can maintain the order in a low-cost, less technical, but more profound and everlasting way.

(Yang, 2007, pp. 2-3)

The comprehensive influence of culture, politics and economy has served human society for ages, but with the growth of scientific and technological rationality, sadly the role of culture is usually combined with other thoughts of order, sometimes even hidden behind or concealed by political and economic orders.

Cultural order in crisis management

The discourse on cultural order has been on the edge of world order discourse for a long time, and its influence remains too limited to compare with that of security. economic, and institutional discourse. Therefore, its significance in specific crises should be seen from a reversed perspective. Historian and professor Akira Iriye believed that power and culture could save the world from disorder. With the emergence of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, the hard power of maintaining world order has been increasingly restricted, whereas the responsibility and role of culture in stabilizing world order will continue to grow (Iriye, 1997). The Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) nature of nuclear weapons has weakened the reliability of the traditional doctrine of order that focuses on hard power. Instead, the role of culture has been frequently discussed by scholars. Considering that international politics demonstrates less authoritativeness than domestic politics, power struggles between nations will be more direct and frequent. Therefore, promoted by the strong desire for order from the international society, various doctrines with different world order views have emerged successively, including the power-oriented hegemonic stability theory and the system-oriented democratic peace theory. Moreover, the balance of power and peace theory has been established as one of the oldest order theory based on power struggles, while the most hotly debated order theory is the clash of civilizations theory. Through predicting the possibility of clashes between different major civilizations, the latter has. in turn, stressed the importance of cultural dialogue, inclusion, and integration for the world order. Without this controversial theory, the international society's debate and understanding of the world’s terrorism and cultural crises would not be so profound.

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