Overview of the publishing work in the early 21st century

In the first decade of the 21st century, in order to promote the study of modern Chinese history, researchers continued the mining and sorting of historical data based on research results of branches of modern Chinese history after 1949, thus a range of data were published, which can be classified into the following categories.

1. Comprehensive data covering politics, economy, the military, ideology and culture, such as Imperia! Edicts of Daoguang Emperor, Imperial Edicts of Xianfeng Emperor, Imperial Edicts of Tongzhi Emperor, Imperial Edicts of Guangxu Emperor, Imperial Edicts of Xuantong Emperor, Record of Guangxu Emperor’s Daily Life, Record of Xuantong Emperor’s Daily Life, Telegraphs of State Council of the Qing Dynasty (photocopy) compiled by

First Historical Archives of China; Government’s Administrative Archives in the Period of Tongzhi, Archives of Imperial Household Department, Official Letters of President Yuan' Shih-Kai's Secretariat, Data Compilation of National Conditions During the Anti-Japanese War, Press Releases of Xinmin News Agent, Rural Survey Report of Six Provinces During the Republic of China, Compilation of Taiwan Historical Materials, The Statistical Summary of Taiwan During the 50-year Japanese Reign, The Policy Address of Chief Executive of Taiwan During the Republic of China, Compilation of Unpublished Telegraph Messages in the Qing Dynasty (photocopy) compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Selected Archives of the Northeast Frontier ( During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China) compiled by the Frontier History and Geography Research Centre of China, Liaoning Provincial Archives, Jilin Provincial Archives and Heilongjiang Provincial Archives; Archives of Hunchun Provincial Government compiled by First Historical Archives of China, the Frontier History and Geography Research Centre of China and Yanji Archives; Meeting Minutes of Central Political Committee and National Defense Council of Wang Puppet Regime, and Meeting Minutes of KMT Central Executive Committee compiled by the Second Historical Archives of China; Collection of Social Investigation Reports of China’s Border Areas compiled by Wang Xiao-li and Jia Zhong-yi; US Government’s Classified Archives (US-China Relations): Report of the US Consulate in Guangzhou (1790-1906) and US Government’s Classified Archives (US-China Relations): Diplomatic Notes of US and China (1846-1931) compiled by Guangxi Normal University Press; 107 varieties of National Library Collection of Modern China’s Statistical Data (photocopy) and 80 varieties of National Library Collection of Investigation Reports During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China compiled by National Library; Selection of Soviet Historical Archives* compiled by Shen Zhi-hua; Historical Data of Wuhan National Government compiled by Wuhan Local Records Compilation Committee; Historical Data of Manchu Puppet Regime compiled by Jilin Provincial Library; Collection of Historical Archives of Wuhan During the Period of Japanese Occupied compiled by Wuhan Archives and Urban Research Institute of Jianghan University.

2. Materials focused on such topics as the economy, Sino-foreign relations, historical events, frontier issues, Japanese aggression against China, AntiJapanese War and legal system.

As regards the economy, major publications are Food Price List from 1820 to 1912 compiled by the Economic Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Meeting Minutes of National Economic Council, Minutes of Economic Conferences of Executive Council and National Mobilization Conferences, Meeting Minutes of the Joint Board of the Four Government Banks compiled by the Second Historical Archives of China; Data Compilation of

China’s Early Expos, Compilation of Railway Archives During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Archives of Provincial Famine Relief Policies During Emperor Guangxu’s Reign, Compilation of Foreign Mining Archives During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Compilation of Trade Archives in the Late Qing Dynasty, Compilation of Trading Ports Archives During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Archival Data of Foreign Firms in China During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Financial Reports of 22 Provinces During Emperor Guangxu’s Reign, Historical Data of Modern China’s Grain Policies, Historical Data of the Living Costs and Earnings in the Republic of China, Selected Historical Data of Labor and Labor Service in the Republic of China, Selected Historical Data of Municipal Construction in the Republic of China, Reports of National Business Conferences in the Early Years of the Republic of China, The Economic Intelligence of Japanese Army and Japanese Puppet Regimes During the Anti-Japanese War, Special Collection of Industry and Commerce Data of Guangdong and Guangxi During the Republic of China, Economic Construction in the Republic of China, Investigation of Shaanxi Industry in the Republic of China, Economic Conditions of the Northeast China Under Japanese Puppet Government Rule, Selected Data of Taiwan’s Economic History in the Republic of China, Statistics of Foreign Trade During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Statistics on Tianjin Business Situation After the Anti-Japanese War, Shanghai Securities and Capital Market During the Republic of China, Domestic and Foreign Debts in the Republic of China compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Selection of General Orders of Chinese Maritime Customs Service (1861-1949) compiled by the editorial committee of the book, General Administration of Customs; Chinese version of Sir Robert Hart Diary 1885-1887 translated by Fu Zeng-ren, Compilation of Suzhou Commercial Group Data compiled by Zhang Kai-yuan, Railway History in the Republic of China (1912-1949) compiled by Mi Ru-cheng, Historical Data of Shanxi Draft Banks (Revised Edition) edited by Huang Jian-hui, History of Northwest Farmers Bank edited by Yang Shi-yuan, Journal of Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce compiled by Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, Compilation of Financial Historical Data During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China published by Beijing Library Press.

In terms of Sino-foreign relations, major publications are Archival Data Compilation of Relations Between Qing Dynasty and Southeast Asian Countries: The Philippines, Archival Data of Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Qing Dynasty ( Volumes of Sino-British relation, Sino-Spanish relation, Sino-Portuguese relation) compiled by the First Historical Archives of China; Selected Historical Data of Modern Sino-Korean Relations compiled by Quan He-xiu; Five Books of Sino-Ryukyu Relations History in the Qing Dynasty, Six-Books of Archival Data of Sino-Ryukyu Relations in the Qing Dynasty, Archival Data Compilation of Sino-Kazakhstan Relations in the Qing Dynasty compiled by Xing Yong-fu; Telegrams of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,

Diplomatic Documents and Correspondences, Telegrams of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Qin g Dynasty, Data Compilation of Diplomatic Meetings and Confidential Files of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Qing Dynasty, Confidential Files of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' Negotiations with Foreign Countries about Transportation During the Republic of China, Archives of Sino-Russian Negotiations about Railways and Electric Wires in Northeast China During the Late Qing Dynasty, Archives of International Negotiations about Ships and Shipping During the Late Qing Dynasty, Archives of Japanese-Russian Peace Negotiations, Archives Compilation of International Negotiations about Post and Telecommunications in Modern China, Archives of Negotiations with Foreign Banks in the Late Qing Dynasty, Compilation of International Conventions Modern China Joined, and Compilation of Diplomatic Archives of the Republic of China compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; and Documents of United States Policy Towards China compiled by Tao Wen-zhao.

Concerning historical events, major publications are Foreign Missions in the Late Qing Dynasty: Selected Translation of British Parliament Documents ( Volume 6)5 compiled by the First Historical Archives of China and History Department of Fujian Normal University; Record of the Eight-Power Allied Forces' Occupation: Minutes of Tianjin Interim Government Meetings translated by Ni Rui-ying; Continuation of Series of Modern Chinese Historical Data: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom compiled by Luo Er-gang and Wang Qing-cheng; Historical Data of the 1911 Revolution (New Edition, 8 volumes) compiled by Zhang Kai-yuan, Confidential Files of Siege of Central Soviet Area compiled by Wen Wen; Memorials to the Emperor About the Opium Warfare, Memorials to the Emperor About the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, Lecture Notes of Sino-Japanese Wars, Memorials to the Emperor Guangxu About the Sino-French War, Memorials to the Emperor Jiaqing, Xianfeng and Tongzhi About Peasant Uprisings, The Foreign Ministry’s Archives of the First World War compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Historical Data of Taiwan Retrocession compiled by the Second Historical Archives of China, Historical Data of May Thirtieth Movement ( Volume HI) compiled by the Institute of History of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Historical Data of National Salvation Association compiled by Zhou Tian-du and Sun Cai-xia, History of Constitutionalism During the Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republic of China compiled by the Photocopying Room of Beijing Library Press.

As for border area issues, major publications are Selected Collections oj' Historical Data Concerning Tibet During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China (1877-1919) compiled by Lu Xiu-zhang, Selected Archives of Tibet and Economic Development and Construction in Tibet During the Republic of China compiled by Liu Li-mei, Historical Data Summary of Tibetans in Kham During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Rare Data of Tibetan Society in Kham (2 Volumes) compiled by Zhao Xin-yu, Compilation of Qing Strategies of Governing Sinkiang compiled by

Zhang Yu-xin, Compilation of Memorials to the Emperor About Szechwan and Tibet Affairs, Archives Compilation of Foreign Negotiations About Sinkiang During the Qing Dynasty, Archives of Border Area Issues During the Qing Dynasty, Memorials to the Emperor Guangxu About Sinkiang Issue, Memorials to the Emperor About Northwest China Affairs, Confidential Memorials to the Emperor About Urgent Affairs of Guangxi and Guizhou During the Late Qing Dynasty, Confidential Archives of Tibet Affairs During the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Summary of Governance of Northwestern Counties During the Republic of China, Series of Historical Data Concerning Southwestern Borders During the Republic of China (Volume of Guangxi, Szechwan, Tibet, Yunnan, Guizhou and Comprehensive Volume) compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Selected Archives of Northwest Borders During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China compiled by the Frontier History and Geography Research Centre of China, Liaoning Provincial Archives, Jilin Provincial Archives and Heilongjiang Provincial Archives.

In terms of Japanese aggression against China, major publications are Archives of Japanese Army’s Harassing Northwest China During the Reign of Emperor Guangxu, The Wanbaoshan Incident in Japanese Occupied Northwest China compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Archives of Japanese Immigrants in Northwest China compiled by Heilongjiang Provincial Archives and Jilin Provincial Archives, Investigation Reports of Manchu Railway (including 4 volumes and 98 books) compiled by Liaoning Provincial Archives, Japanese Residents in Japanese Settlements of Tianjin compiled by Tianjin Library, Report Collection of Japanese Kanto Gendarmerie co-compiled by Jilin Provincial Archives and Guangxi Normal University Press, Historical Data of the Nanjing Massacre compiled by Zhang Xian-wen, Historical Data of Japanese Army’s Atrocity in Hubei compiled by Wu Xu-cheng, Historical Data of Japanese Plunder of Forced Labors in North China compiled by Ju Zhi-fen, Historical Data of Japanese Economic Plunder in Central China (1937-1945) compiled by Shanghai Archives, Written Confessions of Japanese War Criminals During the Second World War (Photocopy) compiled by the Central Archives.

Regarding the Anti-Japanese War, major publications are Illustrated Historical Data of the 19th Route Army’s Bloody Fight Against Japanese Army, Historical Data of Foreign Spies and National Traitors in Modern History, Historical Data Compilation of National Government's Disposal of Japanese Puppets’ Property, Historical Data of Surrender of the Japanese Army in the Second World War compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Selected Archives of Szechwan People’s Fights Against Japanese compiled by Szechwan Provincial Archives.

As regards legal systems, major publications are Meeting Minutes of the Legislature of National Government compiled by the Second Historical Archives of China, Compilation of Labor Issues and Labor Laws During the Republic of China, Compilation of the National Government Administrative

Laws, Documents of Lawyers During the Republic of China, Foreign Lawsuits in the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China, Compilation of National Government’s Annual Decrees, Compilation of Regulations on Local Self-Government in the Republic of China compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Selected Regulations of Rural Self-government in Modern China compiled by Xu Xiu-li.

In other respects, major publications are Compilation of Education History in Modern China (Volume of the Republic of China), Historical Data of Western Development, Selected Data of Philosophy History in Modern China, Historical Data of Chinese Population in Modern History, Historical Data of Prisons in the Republic of China, Data Compilation of Horticulture in the Republic of China, Data Compilation of Tea in the Republic of China compiled by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources; Archives of Modern Social Life compiled by Liaoning Provincial Archives, Compilation of Education History in Modern China compiled by Chen Yuan-hui.

  • 3. Monographs of historical figures. Major publications are Historical Archives of Chang Hsueh-liang Stored in Liaoning Provincial Archives compiled by Liaoning Provincial Archives, Unpublished Manuscript of Zoulu compiled by Cheng Huan-wen, Collection of Mr. Juzheng's Works Stored in Shanghai Library compiled by Shanghai Library, Diary Manuscript of Xie Chi written by Xie Chi, Letter and Diary Manuscripts of Mr. Juzheng reorganized by Xie You-chen, Letter Manuscripts of Hu Han-min compiled by Chen Hong-min, Historical Data of John Fryer edited by Ferdinand Dagenais of the United States, Collection of Zhu Xi-zu's Works compiled by Zhou Wen-jiu, Complete Historical Data of Wei Yuan and Complete Historical Data of Zeng Guo-quan published by Yuelu Press, Complete Historical Data of Li Hung-chang compiled by Gu Yan-long and Dai Yi, Complete Historical Data of Chang Chih-tung compiled by Zhao De-xin and proofread by Wu Jian-jie and Zhou Xiu-luan, Complete Historical Data of Zhang Yuan-ji published by the Commercial Press, Complete Historical Data of Chu Ko-chen published by Shanghai Scientific and Technological Education Publishing House, Collection of Du Ya-quan’s Works compiled by Xu Ji-lin, Historical Data of Chen Bao-zhen compiled by Wang Shu-zi and Zhang Qiu-hui, Historical Data of Ding Wen-jiang compiled by Zhu Zheng, Historical Data of Yang Chang-ji and Historical Data of Fan Yuan-lian published by Hunan Education Publishing House, Historical Data of Yang Du revised by Liu Qing-bo and published by Hunan People’s Publishing House, Historical Data of Cai-E revised by Zeng Yeying, Historical Data of Huang Hsing revised by Liu Yang-yang, Historical Data of Chen Tian-hua supplemented by Liu Qing-bo.
  • 4. Back issues of newspapers. Major publications are photocopied and published by China National Microfilming Centre for Library Recources, such as Pekingese Daily, Beiyang Weekly, Compilation of Official

Newspapers in the Qing Dynasty, Magazine of Chinese Eighth Route Army, Official Journal of General Headquarters of National Revolutionary Army, Official Journal of the National Government Military Commission, Compilation of Rare Periodicals in the Late Qing Dynasty and Continuation Compilation of Rare Periodicals in the Late Qing Dynasty (which includes 65 rare periodicals of the late Qing Dynasty), Compilation of Chinese Agricultural Journals (including 15 agricultural journals published in 1897-1947), Compilation of Anti-Japanese Periodicals (including 44 periodicals published by the Kuomintang and the CPC to make propaganda for Anti-Japanese War after Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937), Compilation of Newspapers in the Republic of China (including 11 newspapers ranging from commentaries, political news, economic trends, international situation, education to the military published in 1899-1948), Data Compilation of Border Area Issues in the Republic of China (including 12 periodicals concerning border area and ethnic issues in the Republic of China), Compilation of Publications of the CPC at its Early Stage (including six periodicals regarding propaganda of Marxism-Leninism and establishment of revolutionary united front), Compilation of Philatelic Journals in the Republic of China (including over 10 philatelic journals), Compilation of 15 Comic Journals in the Republic of China, Compilation of Illustrated Magazines in the Republic of China (including five volumes, namely, comprehensive volume, volume of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Hong Kong-Guangdong), Collection of Film Pictorials of the Early China (including 22 publications during 1921-1948), Collection of Drama Pictorials of the Early China (including 22 publications of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Szechwan, Guangxi and Nanjing), Compilation of Journals Concerning Chinese Classics (including 18 publications during 1908-1947), Compilation of Newspapers in Vernacular Chinese (including 27 newspapers during 1901-1909), Compilation of Rare Publications of the Republic of China (including 30 magazines ranging from The Palace Museum Weekly, New Trend, Economic Statistics Monthly, Industrial Finance, The Public, Southern Wind, Analecta Education, Jingzhao Folk Weekly, Rebirth, The Youth, Weekly Information, Progress Monthly, Friends, Time and Tide, The Central Plains, Spirit of the Times, Hope to Compilation of Rare Magazines Published for a Short Period of Time or Ceased Publication (including 24 volumes of over 1800 publications from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Northeast China, Northwest China, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Shandong, Gansu, Henan, Anhui, Shanxi, Szechwan, Hebei); Compilation of Women's Periodicals of Modern China (148 books of over 20 representatives) photocopied and published by Thread-Binding Books Publishing House; Changsha Daily, Hunan Popular Daily, Ta Kung Pao of Hunan, National Daily, National Political News, Observatory Daily, Hsiang-hsiang People's Daily photocopied and published by Hunan Electronic Audio and Video Publishing

House; Chuanshan Journal, The Shian Kian Weekly Review, Hunan Daily (New Edition), New Era, Travel Translation Series photocopied and published by Hunan Normal University Press, Sports Weekly and Industrial Magazine.

The published historical data mentioned above reveals the following features: (1) in terms of data types, they fall into two major categories: archives and newspapers; (2) in terms of their sources, they were either from the government, individuals, legitimate regimes, illegitimate regimes, or even foreign governments; (3) the vast majority of them are selected and compiled from national, provincial archives, national and municipal libraries; (4) as far as the publishing channel is concerned, most were photocopied which is more convenient; (5) the purpose of those publications has gradually shifted to academic research, rather than just serving for politics.

Publication of a large number of modern historical materials has facilitated the study of modern Chinese history tremendously, yet a couple of issues still need pointing out for future studies.

  • 1. We ought to further expand the scope of data collection and mining. As mentioned in Section 2, we ought to further mine and compile historical materials on such topics as culture, ethics, science and technology, famine, opium prohibition, currency, thoughts, academics, secret societies, gangs, villages, cities and the legal system of modern China; in addition, it is necessary to expand the scope of data collection. Recent publications are virtually based on materials of the First Historical Archives and the Second Historical Archives of China, National Library, provincial archives and municipal libraries, while there are none from county-level archives, small and medium libraries. As a matter of fact, some rather small archives and libraries might hold certain materials that could not be found even in large archives and libraries, therefore, besides continuing mining data from the large archives and libraries, full use ought to be made of county-level archives, small and medium libraries. And we even suggest that relevant agencies conduct a comprehensive investigation of historical materials of local archives, libraries and museums, and researchers from all over the country organize and publish those materials in a planned and systematic manner.
  • 2. Learning from Fan Wen-Ian’s practice of compiling Data Series of Modern Chinese History, including monographs of a couple of major historical events, we ought to further compile and publish monographs restricted to certain issues of politics, economy, culture, and historical figures. Recent publications, as mentioned above, claim to include thematic materials, yet most of them are not refined into monographs in the strict sense. As a matter of fact, there are countless topics worth studying in modern Chinese history. Take the 38 years history of the Republic of China as an example, there are approximately 600 topics6 worth studying according to

Sorting modern history materials 227 the early evaluation of the Research Office of the Republic of China in the Institute of Modern History of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. If the previous 60 years history counted, the number of research topics are even larger. Therefore, while organizing and publishing comprehensive historical data, we ought to attach great importance to compilation of detailed materials restricted to certain special topics.

  • 3. It is necessary to adopt both the method of photocopying and reorganizing in publishing. Recent publications are mostly photocopied, which is handy when the publishing industry is becoming market-oriented, and a good way to guarantee the accuracy of materials and even of appreciating value, however, for the convenience of researchers, we strongly suggest reorganizing most of the historical materials and publishing them with interpretations, except materials such as old newspapers which must be photocopied as a whole.
  • 4. All the materials published ought to be accurate. Recent publications are of good quality in general, however, a few are of rather poor quality with misjudgment, misinterpretation, distorted facts, which might hinder researchers from interpreting historical data accurately, as some scholars pointed out as early as in 2000.7 However, unfortunately, the situation has not improved much. With the common aspiration to prosper the study of modern Chinese history, it is researchers’ responsibility to provide accurate historical data.

Notes

  • 1 Editor of Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
  • 2 All papers and books cited in this chapter can be found in the Dictionary of Chinese Archives and Documents.
  • 3 During the Anti-Japanese War, the Japanese sponsored and established the “Manchukuo” Puppet Regime, the Mongolian Puppet Autonomous Government, Beijing Puppet Interim Government and Nanjing Puppet Restoration Government.
  • 4 The book has a total of 34 volumes (36 books), more than 20 million words.
  • 5 The book is included in Continuation of Series of Modern Chinese Historical Data.
  • 6 Please refer to Selected Topics Concerning the History of the People’s Republic of China (which was compiled in February 1979, but unpublished).
  • 7 Wu Jianjie, Ensuring accuracy in sorting the historical data of modern Chinese history, Modern Chinese History Studies, 2000 (4).
 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >