The Routledge Handbook of Gender and EU Politics

AcknowledgementsAbbreviations and acronymsWhose story is it anyway? Studying European integration with a gender lensSome remarks on mainstream historyEuropean integration as ‘her- story’ – some missing bits and piecesStructure and idea of this HandbookNoteReferencesI Gendering the EUThe EU as a gender equality regime: A core research conceptA short overview of gender equality in the EUOrigins of the “gender regime” approachConceptualizing the EU as a gender equality regimeThe EU gender equality regime since the Great RecessionAchievements, gaps and future directionsConclusion: dismantling, disintegration or defianceReferencesEuropeanizationEuropeanization through a gender lens: “going soft” vs. meaning contestationDe-Europeanization? Gendering Europe in troubled timesEuropeanization “beyond Europe”, as conflict or “De-Europeanization”Reflecting new trends in the Gender and EU scholarshipTowards a common research agenda: gender, the new cleavage of Europe?ReferencesSocial constructivismMainstream approaches to social constructivism in European Integration theoryGendering European Integration theory from social constructivist approachesConclusionsNoteReferencesFeminist institutionalismFrom new institutionalism to feminist institutionalismFeminist institutionalism as a response to new institutionalismCentral conceptsFeminist institutionalism in EU studiesSeeing gender when others are blindAgents of change and resistanceFormal and informal rules and valuesConceptual opennessMoving forwardWhere does this take us?ReferencesFeminist political economy and its explanatory promiseCPE approaches to EU integrationFeminist political economy – conceptualising the economy and identifying gendered impactsFeminist political economy in EU studiesMoving forward – key issuesReferencesThe EU, men and masculinitiesResearch in and on the EUThe EU political and policy contextResearch developmentsEuropean Commission-funded interventionsGaps and intersectionsConclusion: future directionsReferencesThe EU approach to intersectional discrimination in lawIntersectional discrimination, multiple discrimination and intersectionalityIntersectional and multiple discrimination in EuropeThe future of intersectional discrimination in the EUFrom immutability to stigmaThe shadow of gender and multiple discriminationConclusionNotesReferencesII Gendering the EU polity and structures of governanceEuropean ParliamentGendering the European ParliamentCandidates and MEPsPolitical groupsCommitteesAdditional formal and informal structuresEuropean Parliament policies and gender equalityMoving forward: research gaps and directions for future researchNotesReferencesGendering the Council systemThe Council systemGendering mainstream research on the Council systemFuture perspectivesNotesReferencesGender equality and the European CommissionThe state of gender equality in the European CommissionGendering EU policiesPhase one: fostering equal pay for men and womenPhase two: broadening the perspective through gender mainstreamingPhase three: focusing on wider aspects of discrimination and updating earlier gender equality policiesGendering the European CommissionThe Commission’s agency: between pressure and constraintsConclusionNotesReferencesThe European External Action ServiceCreating the EEAS: a gendered agenda?Understanding the EEAS as an institutional actor: internal dynamics and institutional connectionsThe EEAS and the Commission: partners or competitors?Internal developments in the EEASThe EEAS as a foreign policy actorResearching gender and the EEAS: a call to actionConclusionReferencesThe politics of gender in the field of European agenciesAgencies as a (new) form of governance in the EUThe European Institute for Gender EqualityThe creation process of EIGEEIGE and the question of the de-politicization of gender expertiseGender vs. diversity? Anti-discrimination and the question of the unification of equality agenciesMainstreaming gender within EU agencies?Europeanization and the transformation of governance through agencies at the national levelEU agencies and gender in the context of the crisis and illiberalismConclusion and directions for future researchNoteReferencesThe Court of Justice of the EU and judicial politicsGendering the CJEUWhere do we go from here: future directionsConclusionNotesReferencesIII Gendered politics in the EUEnlargementThe evolution of the EU’s membership conditionalityThe broader literature on EU enlargementScholarship on the impact of EU enlargement on gender equalityDirections for future researchReferencesGender and EU citizenshipThe construction of citizenshipThe concept of citizenshipPolitical rights and human rightsKey issues and debates for EU citizenshipGendering EU citizenshipCitizenship rightsCitizen participationThird country nationalsRecent developmentsMoving forward: key issues and debatesConclusionReferencesThe privilege of (defining) knowledge: Gender differences in political knowledge across EuropeGender gaps in political knowledge: tracing the rootsFemale unknowing – or knowing differently?The road ahead: challenges to political knowledge researchMoving forwardReferencesCivil societyThe EU as civil society promoterGender advocacy and women’s movements in the EUProfessionalizationInsider/outsider claim-makingIntersectional mobilizationTransnational and national civil societies in the EU: upward and downward influencesFuture challenges for gendered European civil society researchNoteReferencesParty politicsEuroparties and European party groups – transnational and powerless?Gendered representation, gender equality policy, and gendered working proceduresEuropean Parliament elections and gendered representationEPG positions on gender equality and anti-discriminationConclusionNotesReferencesIV Gender equality and EU policiesSocial and employment policySocial and employment policy: ambiguous, subordinate and contestedThe early years: uneven legislative activismThe 1990s: broadening and softeningThe unrealised potential of gender mainstreamingFeminist scholarship: identifying and theorising the ‘bottlenecks’ and gapsConclusionReferencesEconomic and monetary unionEMU idea and historyInstitutions and mechanisms for economic coordinationReaction to the crisis since 2008: new economic governanceImpacts of the new economic governance at member state levelGendering EMUMoving forward: key issuesReferencesTrade policyBackground and bias of trade policy in the EUKey issues in trade policy and genderGender in EU trade policySocial rights and the implicitness of gender in EU trade policyTowards explicit inclusion of gender in international trade negotiationsGender chapters in preferential trade agreementsConclusionNotesReferencesDevelopment policyEU development policy and its scholarshipGender in EU development policyScholarship on gender and developmentResearch gaps in gender and EU development studiesConclusion and directions for future researchReferencesGender and EU climate policyEU climate policyMainstream studies of EU climate policyGender and climate changeGender and climate change in EU policyConclusionReferencesResearch policyEvolution of EU RTD and gender equality in itFrom industrial competitiveness to a broader policy frameworkGender equality in EU research policy: losing the consensus?Critical scholarship about EU research policyConditions for sustainability of gender equality policy and areas for future researchStability of gender equality as a strategic priorityPolicy monitoring and evaluationInstitutional capacityStakeholder mobilisationCooperation between femocrats at the EU and member state level and external supportersNotesReferencesSecurity and defence policyMainstream perspectives on the development of EU security and defence policyGendered institutions, policies and discourses in CSDPGendered institutions in CSDPGendered discourses and policies in CSDPResearch gaps and directions for future research: centring EU militarism and studying security abroadNotesReferencesMigration and asylum policyAttitudes towards migration and asylum in the EUMigration policies and genderThe genderedness of selected migration types and policiesGendering migration: key actors and instrumentsAsylum policies and genderInternational and European entanglementsVarying attention to gender in EU asylum policiesConclusionReferencesViolence against women and gender-based violenceEU action on the issue of violence against womenSexual harassmentTrafficking in womenViolence against women and domestic violenceCombatting violence against women in EU external actionsGender research and feminist engagement with the topicMoving forward: key issuesNotesReferencesV A gender lens on key issues and debatesThe populist challenge to gender equalityReframing populism in mainstream and gender literatureReframing populism through the gender lensOverview of research on gender and populism in the EU and its member statesMoving forward: future challenges for gender research and politicsConcluding reflectionsNotesReferencesEconomic crisis and the politics of austerityMainstream approaches to the economic crisis and austerityGender approaches and their contributionsConclusionReferencesThe gender story of Brexit: From under-representation of women to marginalisation of equalityReferendum: representing women’s interests?Interregnum – May’s leadership yearsNegotiationsThrough the looking glassConclusionsNotesReferences
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