The Ancient Romans:History and Society from the Early Republic to the Death of Augustus

GlossarySome useful definitionsList of consuls 88 bc–ad 14Early Republican Rome: 509–264 bcGeography and locationThe forum RomanumSenate and magistraciesThe assemblies and tribunateThe beginnings of the ‘Conflict of the Orders’Rome and its Italian neighboursThe origins of the XII TablesThe supplementary TablesThe Conflict of the Orders continuesPolybius on the Roman constitutionRome’s struggle for ItalyRome and the LatinsThe Samnite Wars and PyrrhusRome as master of ItalyFurther reading for this chapterThe public face of RomeThe infrastructure of the cityCommunications and public worksThe ideology of the Roman senatorial classConspicuous consumption in RomeGloriaThe Roman triumphCandidature for office: ambitioThe novus homoAmicitiaClientela and patronageHospitiumLitigation as a way of lifeOratory as part of a public career‘Bread and circuses’Further reading for this chapterReligion in the Roman RepublicEarly deities and cultsEarly hymns and ritualsPriesthoodsRoman purificatory ritualsRitual formulae and prayersReligious calendarsSacrificeDivinationAuguryThe sacred chickensDedications and vowsThe introduction of new godsThe Bacchanalia, 186 bcCurse tablets and sympathetic magicFestivalsReligion and politicsFunerary practicesFurther reading for this chapterThe Punic warsThe city of CarthageRome’s treaties with Carthage: 508, 348, 279 bcThe constitution of CarthageThe First Punic War, 264–241 bcRoman victory and peace termsThe Second Punic War, 218–201 bcHannibalThe first stages of the war in ItalyThe impact on the alliesThe tide turnsP. Cornelius Scipio (Africanus)Peace termsThe Third Punic War, 151–146 bcFurther reading for this chapterRome’s Mediterranean empireThe ideology of Roman military supremacyThe military heroThe Roman armyPolybius on Rome’s military systemMilitary technologyMilitary disciplineRome’s conquest of the MediterraneanAntiochus III ‘the Great’, 222–187 bcRome as master of the MediterraneanRome’s imperialist stanceRome’s conquest of GreeceThe Western MediterraneanThe impact of conquest on RomeHellenic culture and RomeAristocratic extravaganceRome and the provincesFurther reading for this chapterSlaves and freedmenSlave numbers in RomeSources of slavesDomestic slavesThe treatment of slavesSlaves in industry and manufactureSlaves and the entertainment industryFarm slaves: their occupations and trainingSlaves and the lawRunaways and fugitivesSlave revoltsThe manumission of slavesThe occupations of freedmenSlaves and freedmen of the imperial householdFurther reading for this chapterWomen, sexuality, and the familyRoman family namesFamily lawThe formalities of marriageOld-fashioned familiesWives and their roleMarital discordAdultery, conspiracy, and sorceryHeterosexual love: Catullus and LesbiaHomosexuality and pederastyProstitutionWomen as owners and consumersWomen and the godsThe Bona DeaThe Vestal VirginsFurther reading for this chapterTiberius and Gaius GracchusFamily backgroundThe tribunate of TiberiusTiberius and the senateBoundary stones of the Gracchan periodThe aftermath of Tiberius’ legislationThe career of Gaius GracchusThe legislation of Gaius GracchusGaius Gracchus loses popular supportAssassination and reprisalsFailure of the Gracchan reformsLater views of the GracchiFurther reading for this chapterGaius MariusFamily background and educationMarius’ early careerMarius in AfricaMarius and SullaMarius and the GermansArmy reformsMarius, Saturninus, and GlauciaMarius’ later careerThe command against Mithridates VIMarius’ return to RomeFurther reading for this chapterThe ‘Social’ WarThe restriction of Roman citizenshipThe proposals of Fulvius Flaccus and Gaius GracchusMarcus Livius DrususThe Social War‘Brothers-in-arms’: Romans and ItaliansThe emergence of L. Cornelius SullaCitizenship for the ItaliansFurther reading for this chapterLucius Cornelius Sulla ‘Felix’Sulla’s early careerMithridates VI of PontusThe background to the civil warSulla and MithridatesEvents in Rome: waiting for Sulla, 85–84 bcSulla’s proscriptionsDictatorship and constitutional reformsSulla’s legislationSulla in retirementLater views of SullaFurther reading for this chapterThe collapse of the RepublicThe aftermath of Sulla’s dictatorshipThe consulship of Crassus and Pompey, 70 bcPompey’s extraordinary commandsThe Catilinarian conspiracy, 63 bcCicero and his timesPompey’s return from the EastCicero and PompeyThe events of 60 bcThe ‘First Triumvirate’Caesar’s consulship, 59 bcClodius and CiceroCato the YoungerCicero’s return from exilePompey’s grain command, 57 bcCaesar in GaulThe conference at Luca, 56 bcThe second consulship of Crassus and PompeyThe events of 54 bcCrassus in ParthiaCaesar’s invasions of BritainFurther reading for this chapterThe civil war and Caesar’s dictatorshipAnarchy in Rome, 53–52 bcPompey as sole consul, 52 bcThe lead-up to civil warThe events of 50 bcThe flight of the tribunesCrossing the RubiconPreparations for warCivil warPompey and his followersCaesar in the EastCaesar’s dictatorshipsExceptional honours for CaesarCaesar’s legislationCaesar’s administrative measuresCaesar and his imageThe Ides of MarchFurther reading for this chapterOctavian’s rise to powerMark Antony (M. Antonius)C. Julius Caesar ‘Octavianus’The aftermath of Caesar’s assassinationOctavian arrives in ItalyOctavian and the populaceCicero and AntonyEvents at MutinaOctavian’s first consulship, 43 bcTriumvirate and proscriptionsThe ‘liberators’ and civil warThe battle of Philippi, October 42 bcFulvia, Lucius Antonius, and the dispossessedAntony’s reorganisation of the EastEvents in ItalyLivia DrusillaAntony, Cleopatra, and ParthiaPropaganda and invectiveCivil warThe battle of Actium, September 31 bcC. Cornelius GallusOctavian’s return to ItalyPrinceps and AugustusFurther reading for this chapterThe age of AugustusAugustus and the res gestae divi AugustiAugustus as princeps, 27 bcThe ‘Second Settlement’Augustus ‘Imperator’Augustus and traditional religionMarriage, divorce, and adulteryThe lex Papia Poppaea, ad 9The ludi saecularesMarcellus and AgrippaAugustus and imperial cultLegislation on slaves and freedmenThe family of AugustusAugustus as administratorSenators and new menMaecenas and Augustan literatureThe golden yearsDisappointment and disasterEnd of an ageViews of Augustus and his regimeFurther reading for this chapterGeneral index
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