Combating Corruption in the Middle East: A Socio-Legal Study of Kuwait


IntroductionWhat is this book about?OriginalityMethodology: Socio-legal researchOutline of the bookBibliographyThe phenomenon of corruptionWhat is corruption? Literature reviewCorruption: An ill-defined conceptPatterns of corruptionTypologies of corruptionState characteristics and corruptionThe effects of corruptionEconomic effects of corruptionThe corruption-crime nexusCauses of corruptionStructural approachIndividualist approachKuwait and corruptionConceptualising corruption in KuwaitCorruption patternsEffects of corruption: The corruption-governance nexusCauses of corruptionSocio-cultural backgrounds and corruptionPolitical system and causes of corruptionEconomic system and corruptionConclusionBibliographyCounter-corruption: Values and strategiesCounter-corruption valuesLegitimacyTransparencyAccountabilityHuman rightsMorality of the lawLegal certaintyEffectivenessEffective legal frameworkEvidence-based policymaking: what works?Counter-corruption strategiesSocial empowermentLaw enforcementSituational crime prevention (SCP)ConclusionBibliographyKuwaiti criminal counter-corruption measuresWhat is corruption in Kuwaiti law? Setting the scope of chapterCurrent criminal counter-corruption measuresBriberyDiversion of public fundsEmbezzlementMisappropriation and facilitation thereofAbuse of functionMisconduct in public officeConflict of interestIllicit enrichment offence (IEO)Money laundering offence (ML Offence)Proceeds of crimePre-conviction measuresPost-conviction measuresInternational cooperationWhistleblowingCritique of the Kuwaiti criminal response to corruption and suggested reformsAssessment of existing criminal counter-corruption measuresInnovative measuresBounty hunting and public mobilisation strategiesInnovative prosecutorial policyConclusionBibliographyKuwaiti non-criminal countercorruption measuresWorking definition for corruption in non-criminal contextsCurrent non-criminal counter-corruption measuresEnforcement pyramidPersuasive measuresCode of conduct in the civil serviceSelf-regulatory measures in the private sectorCivil law measuresDomestic civil lawsuitsInternational cooperation in civil lawAdministrative measures: disciplinary offencesAdministrative violationsCritique of the existing non-criminal countercorruption measures and suggested reformsAssessment of existing non-criminal counter-corruption measuresInnovative measuresUnexplained wealth order (UWOs)ConclusionBibliographyConclusionResearch objectives and key findings: What has been foundOriginality: A fieldwork studyFuture researchBibliographyAppendix 1: Interview guideAppendix 2: Translation of some of the most relevant cited legislation