Major Actors in Creating and Implementing Educational Policies
Throughout the chapters of this book, I will be discussing the major players in deciding educational policies. Below is a list of these decision makers influencing U.S. education policies. A discussion of these will be weaved into each chapter. Of course, the larger question is, who should control school policies?
Major Actors in U.S. Educational Policy Creation and Implementation
- 1. U.S. Constitution: Control of education given to states
- 2. Federal Government: Directly influences state and local education policies
- 3. U.S. Secretary of Education
- 4. U.S. Congress
- 5. U.S. Supreme Court
- 6. Federal and state courts
- 7. Governors and state departments of Education
- 8. Local school boards
- 9. Teachers unions
- 10. School administrators
- 11. Teachers
- 12. Parents
- 13. Lobbyists
- 14. Global publishers and test makers
- 15. Global education associations
- 16. Global technology companies
Many of these policymakers will be discussed in the next chapter about the often-emotional issue of religion and educational policy.
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NASA: Earth Observatory. “World of Change: Global Temperatures.” Accessed August 4, 2020. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/world-of-change/decadaltemp.php.
Kyle Harper, The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire The Princeton History of the Ancient World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019).
William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Anchor, 1976).
Elizabeth A. Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2002).
Catharine Arnold, Pandemic 1918: Eyewitness Accounts from the Greatest Medical Holocaust in Modern History (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2020).
Andrew Sullivan, “A Plague Is an Apocalypse.” New York Magazine, July 20, 2020, 28.
Pallab Ghosh, “Climate Change Boosted Australia Bushfire Risk by At Least 30%.” BBC, March 4, 2020. Accessed September 28, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environ-ment-51742646#:~:text=Scientists%20have%20published%20the%20first, likely %20 to%20be%20much%20greater.
Joel Spring, Global Impacts of the Western School Model: Corporatization, Alienation, Consumerism (New York: Routledge, 2019).
Joel Spring, Globalization of Education: An Introduction, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2015).
Anna Momigliano, “The Flooding of Venice: What Tourists Need to Know.” New York Times, November 11, 2019. Accessed January 5, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/ll/20/travel/ venice-flooding.html?searchResultPosition=2.
Spring, Global Impacts, 124-36.
Kai Schultz and Sameer Yasir, “As India Violence Gets Worse, Police Are Accused of Abusing Muslims.” January 2,2020. Accessed January 6,2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/02/ world/asia/india-protests-police-muslims.html?searchResultPosition=l.
Mark Walsh, “Kavanaugh Has Supported Public School Prayers, Religious School Vouchers.” July 11, 2018. Accessed January 6, 2020, https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/school_ law/2018/07/ka vanaugh_has_supported_of_pub.html.
Spring, Global Impacts, 87-107.
Joel Spring, A Perfect Life (Mount Vernon, NY: Phoenix Books, 2015).
Jessica Powell, “Parent-Teacher Association.” New York Times, January 3, 2020. Accessed January 6, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/01/03/opinion/jessica-powell-parent-teacher-association.html ?searchResultPosition=l.
Elizabeth Wolfe and Christina Walker, “In 46 Weeks This Year, There Have Been 45 School Shootings.” CNN, November 19, 2019. Accessed January 8, 2020, https://www.cnn. com/2019/ll/15/us/2019-us-school-shootings-trnd/index.html.
Pat Gao, “Promoting Indigenous Rights.” Taiwan Today, Taiwan Review, February 1, 2015. Accessed January 8, 2020, https://taiwantoday.tw/news.php?post=23754&unit=12,29,33.
Elizabeth Hubbs, “Taiwan Language-in-Education Policy: Social, Cultural, and Practical Implications.” Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching, 20, 76-95 (2013). Accessed January 8, 2020, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4879/792a727699f65c63e81el9680e4ca8 21fd5c.pdf.
Dana Goldstein, “Two States. Eight Textbooks. Two American Stories.” New York Times, January 13, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/01/12/us/texas-vs-california-historv-textbooks.html?action=click&:module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage. Ibid.