Major Actors in Creating and Implementing Educational Policies

Throughout the chapters of this book, I will be discussing the major players in deciding educational policies. Below is a list of these decision makers influencing U.S. education policies. A discussion of these will be weaved into each chapter. Of course, the larger question is, who should control school policies?

Major Actors in U.S. Educational Policy Creation and Implementation

  • 1. U.S. Constitution: Control of education given to states
  • 2. Federal Government: Directly influences state and local education policies
  • 3. U.S. Secretary of Education
  • 4. U.S. Congress
  • 5. U.S. Supreme Court
  • 6. Federal and state courts
  • 7. Governors and state departments of Education
  • 8. Local school boards
  • 9. Teachers unions
  • 10. School administrators
  • 11. Teachers
  • 12. Parents
  • 13. Lobbyists
  • 14. Global publishers and test makers
  • 15. Global education associations
  • 16. Global technology companies

Many of these policymakers will be discussed in the next chapter about the often-emotional issue of religion and educational policy.


Abrahm Lustgarten, “The Great Climate Migration.” New York Times, July 23, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.nytimes.eom/interactive/2020/07/23/magazine/cli-mate-migration.html?searchResultPosition=l.

NASA: Earth Observatory. “World of Change: Global Temperatures.” Accessed August 4, 2020.

Kyle Harper, The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire The Princeton History of the Ancient World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019).

William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Anchor, 1976).

Elizabeth A. Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2002).

Catharine Arnold, Pandemic 1918: Eyewitness Accounts from the Greatest Medical Holocaust in Modern History (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2020).

Andrew Sullivan, “A Plague Is an Apocalypse.” New York Magazine, July 20, 2020, 28.

Pallab Ghosh, “Climate Change Boosted Australia Bushfire Risk by At Least 30%.” BBC, March 4, 2020. Accessed September 28, 2020,, likely %20 to%20be%20much%20greater.

Joel Spring, Global Impacts of the Western School Model: Corporatization, Alienation, Consumerism (New York: Routledge, 2019).

Ibid., 1-21.

Joel Spring, Globalization of Education: An Introduction, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2015).

Anna Momigliano, “The Flooding of Venice: What Tourists Need to Know.” New York Times, November 11, 2019. Accessed January 5, 2020, venice-flooding.html?searchResultPosition=2.

Spring, Global Impacts, 124-36.

Kai Schultz and Sameer Yasir, “As India Violence Gets Worse, Police Are Accused of Abusing Muslims.” January 2,2020. Accessed January 6,2020, world/asia/india-protests-police-muslims.html?searchResultPosition=l.

Mark Walsh, “Kavanaugh Has Supported Public School Prayers, Religious School Vouchers.” July 11, 2018. Accessed January 6, 2020, law/2018/07/ka vanaugh_has_supported_of_pub.html.

Spring, Global Impacts, 87-107.

Joel Spring, A Perfect Life (Mount Vernon, NY: Phoenix Books, 2015).

Jessica Powell, “Parent-Teacher Association.” New York Times, January 3, 2020. Accessed January 6, 2020, ?searchResultPosition=l.

Elizabeth Wolfe and Christina Walker, “In 46 Weeks This Year, There Have Been 45 School Shootings.” CNN, November 19, 2019. Accessed January 8, 2020, https://www.cnn. com/2019/ll/15/us/2019-us-school-shootings-trnd/index.html.

Pat Gao, “Promoting Indigenous Rights.” Taiwan Today, Taiwan Review, February 1, 2015. Accessed January 8, 2020,,29,33.

Elizabeth Hubbs, “Taiwan Language-in-Education Policy: Social, Cultural, and Practical Implications.” Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching, 20, 76-95 (2013). Accessed January 8, 2020, 21fd5c.pdf.

Dana Goldstein, “Two States. Eight Textbooks. Two American Stories.” New York Times, January 13, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2020, Ibid.




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