Law and Food: Regulatory Recipes of Culinary Issues

IntroductionI Law and foodFeasting on the legal regulation of food Ail ever more abundant banquet over the centuriesL’évolution de la réglementation des denrées alimentaires dans la France (1305-1935)La progressive réglementation de la production des denrées Le painLe fromage et d’autres denrées alimentairesLa protection embryonnaire contre la fraude et la falsificationLes bouleversements sociaux et les effets sur l’étiquetage : liberté, égalité et... criminalitéLes denrées alimentaires et la liberté du marchéL’élaboration des codes et le contrôle des abus du marchéLa floraison des règles de l’étiquetage dans le XIXe etXXe siècleLes étiquettes et la vérité - la répression des fraudesL’arrivée d’un schème juridique pour les signes de qualitéFood regulation in New France and in pre- and post-Confederation Canada (1706-1935)Food regulation begins with the first food labels - adopting the approach of the motherlandFood labelling rules flow from commodity inspection lawsFood labelling rules arising from the prevention of food adulterationFood safety, food purity and food labelling - the Adulteration ActsPood labelling under Canada’s first Pood and Drugs ActLabelling rules continue to flow from marketing and standards legislationConclusionThe “law of necessity” in the relationship between man and food“Food necessities”, “law necessities” and the evolution of human legal historyThe legal significance of the nurturing actFollowing: legal value of culinary customsFood and social hierarchyFood taboos and social organizationFood as the formal element of lawThe “food cycle” and the lawLaw and food production. Social structures of hunters and harvester communitiesFollowing: the agricultural revolution and the birth of centralized powerConclusionThe right to food and the implementation strategiesThe slow affirmation of the right to foodThe first instrument of discipline of the European food policy: the precaution and the analysis of riskThe second instrument of discipline of the European food policy: preventionThe instruments of food policy by comparison: the case of GMOsConcluding notesBibliographyThe sugar tax dilemma A comparative analysis of the newly introduced sugar tax legislation in South Africa in relation to developing countries as well as the subsequent impact on the right to foodThe right to food and background to the creation of a “tax”The legality of a sugar or sin taxOther jurisdictionsConclusionII Law and wineWine certifications and geographic indications The non-certifying function of American Viticultural AreasThe economics of informationThe Old World: GIs as certifiersThe New World: trademarks and certificationsThe international regime: a win for the Old WorldConclusionThe Crime of consumption of alcoholic beverages in the Somali Penal CodeAlcoholic beverages in Islamic lawA short comparative analysis (focused on Muslim African countries)ConclusionIII Intellectual property and foodProtecting recipes?The protection of recipes and dishes under copyright lawConclusion: for a new taxonomyReferencesDon’t steal my recipe! A comparative study of French and U.S. law on the protection of culinary recipes and dishes against copyingA short history of recipes and gastronomyDroit d’auteur (author’s right) and copyright protection for recipesAlternatives to copyright: trademarks, trade secrets, patents, and non-disclosure agreementsBeyond intellectual property protection Food as traditional knowledgeFood as traditional cultural expression (TCE)Final remarksReferencesIV Food qualityThe second slice of the cake Liability for defective food products between tradition and innovationDifferent responses to the producer liability problem: the contractual approachThe tort liability approachThe directive 85/374/EEC concerning liability for defective productsEffective consumer protection and traditional liability rulesBibliographySigns of quality and food protected designation of originQuality schemes and consumer guaranteeThe conditions for legal protectionThe geographical origin of agri-food productsProtected Designations of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGI)The case for an international legal guide for the protection of the geographical indications of agri-food productsBibliography
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