The Need for Competence and Upholding of Ethical Standards

As a guide for all of the subsequent principles, each reviewed document highlights the need for anyone practicing with technology to take reasonable steps to ensure their competence with both the technologies themselves, and the potential impacts that the technology may hold for both the provider and the patient. To accomplish this, providers should seek research literature (Appendix F), books (Appendix F), formal training (e.g., graduate education, continuing education [CE] programming; Appendix G), consultation, and supervision. Specific foci of educational endeavors include, but are not limited to, the specific benefits of the technology-based approach; the limitations or risks associated with use of the technology; research on outcomes for specific diagnoses, ages, SES, cultures, languages,

Table 3.4 NASW. ASWB, CSWE, & CSWA Standards for Technology in Social Work Practice*

Section

Standards

1. Provision of information to the public

  • 1.01 Ethics and values
  • 1.02 Representation of self and accuracy of information

2. Designing and delivering services

  • 2.01 Ethical use of technology to deliver social work services
  • 2.02 Services requiring licensure or other forms of accreditation
  • 2.03 Laws that govern provision of social work services
  • 2.04 Informed consent: discussing the benefits and risk of providing electronic social work services
  • 2.05 Assessing clients’ relationships with technology
  • 2.06 Competence: knowledge and skills required when using technology to provide services
  • 2.07 Confidentiality and the use of technology
  • 2.08 Electronic payments and claims
  • 2.09 Maintaining professional boundaries
  • 2.10 Social media policy
  • 2.11 Use of personal technology for work purposes
  • 2.12 Unplanned interruptions of electronic social work services
  • 2.13 Responsibility in emergency circumstances
  • 2.14 Electronic and online testimonials
  • 2.15 Organizing and advocacy
  • 2.16 Fundraising
  • 2.17 Primary commitment to clients
  • 2.18 Confidentiality
  • 2.19 Appropriate boundaries
  • 2.20 Addressing unique needs
  • 2.21 Access to technology
  • 2.22 Programmatic needs assessments and evaluations
  • 2.23 Current knowledge and competence
  • 2.24 Control of messages
  • 2.25 Administration

3. Gathering, managing, and storing information

  • 2.26 Conducting online research
  • 2.27 Social media policies
  • 3.01 Informed consent
  • 3.02 Separation of personal and professional communications
  • 3.03 Handling confidential information
  • 3.04 Access to records within an organization
  • 3.05 Breach of confidentiality
  • 3.06 Credibility of information gathered electronically

30 Guidebooks and Recommendations Table 3.4 Cont.

Section

Standards

  • 3.07 Sharing information with other parties
  • 3.08 Client access to own records
  • 3.09 Using search engines to locate information about clients
  • 3.10 Using search engines to locate information about professional colleagues
  • 3.11 Treating colleagues with respect
  • 3.12 Open-access information
  • 3.13 Accessing client records remotely
  • 3.14 Managing phased-out and outdated electronic devices

4. Social work education and supervision

  • 4.01 Use of technology in social work education
  • 4.02 Training social workers about the use of technology in practice
  • 4.03 Continuing education
  • 4.04 Social media policies
  • 4.05 Evaluation
  • 4.06 Technological disruptions
  • 4.07 Distance education
  • 4.08 Support
  • 4.09 Maintenance of academic standards
  • 4.10 Educator-student boundaries
  • 4.11 Field instruction
  • 4.12 Social work supervision

Source: NASW et al. (2017).

Note: * Information is a summary.

Table 3.5 АСА Code of Ethics*

Section

Standard

The counseling relationship

A. 1 Client welfare

A.2 Informed consent in the counseling relationship A.3 Clients served by others A.4 Avoiding harm and imposing values A.5 Prohibited noncounseling roles and relationships A.6 Managing and maintaining boundaries and professional relationships A.7 Roles and relationships at individual, group, institutional, and societal levels A.8 Multiple clients A.9 Group work A. 10 Fees and business practices A. 11 Termination and referral A. 12 Abandonment and client neglect

Table 3.5 Cont.

Section

Standard

Confidentiality and privacy

В. 1 Respecting client rights B.2 Exceptions

B.3 Information shared with others B.4 Groups and families

B.5 Clients lacking capacity to give informed consent B.6 Records and documentation B.7 Case consultation

Professional

responsibility

C. 1 Knowledge of and compliance with standards

C.2 Professional competence

C.3 Advertising and soliciting clients

C.4 Professional qualifications

C.5 Nondiscrimination

C.6 Public responsibility

C.7 Treatment modalities

Relationships with other professionals

C. 8 Responsibility to other professionals

D. 1 Relationships with colleagues, employers, and employees

D.2 Provision of consultation services

Evaluation, assessment, and interpretation

E.l General

E.2 Competence to use and interpret assessment instruments

E.3 Informed consent in assessment

E.4 Release of data to qualified personnel

E.5 Diagnosis of mental disorders

E.6 Instrument selection

E.7 Conditions of assessment administration

E.8 Multicultural issues/diversity in assessment

E.9 Scoring and interpretation of assessment

E.10 Assessment security

E. 11 Obsolete assessment and outdated results

E.l2 Assessment construction

E. 13 Forensic evaluation: evaluation for legal proceedings

Supervision, training, and teaching

F. 1 Counselor supervision and client welfare F.2 Counselor supervision competence F.3 Supervisory relationship F.4 Supervisor responsibilities F.5 Student and supervisee responsibilities F.6 Counseling supervision evaluation, remediation, and endorsement

F.7 Responsibilities of counselor educators F.8 Student welfare F.9 Evaluation and remediation F. 10 Roles and relationships between counselor educators and students

F. 11 Multicultural/diversity competence in counselor education and training programs

Research and publication

G. 1 Research responsibilities G.2 Rights of research participants

32 Guidebooks and Recommendations

Table 3.5 Cont.

Section

Standard

G.3 Managing and maintaining boundaries

G.4 Reporting results

G.5 Publication and presentations

Distance counseling, technology', and social media

H.l Knowledge and legal considerations H.2 Informed consent and security H.3 Client verification H.4 Distance counseling relationship H.5 Records and web maintenance H.6 Social media

Resolving ethical issues

  • 1.1 Standards and the law
  • 1.2 Suspected violations
  • 1.3 Cooperation with ethics committees

Source: (АСА, 2014).

Note: * Information is a summary

Table 3.6 American Psychiatric Association's Telepsychiatry Toolkit*

Section

Standard

History and background

History of telepsychiatry Advocacy issues Clinical outcomes Evidence base Feasibility and effectiveness Return on investment

Training

Adapting your practice, learning to do telemental health Credentialing process Media communication skills Style adaption Working with residents

Legal and reimbursement issues

Malpractice issues Medicaid reimbursement Private insurance reimbursement Ryan Haight Act State licensure

Technical considerations

Platform and software requirements Security issues

Telepsychiatry and integration with other technologies

Practice and clinical issues

Child and adolescent telepsychiatry

Clinical documentation

Clinical and therapeutic modalities

Geriatric telepsychiatry

Individual models of care

Inpatient telepsychiatry

Patient safety and emergency management

Table 3.6 Cont.

Section

Standard

Rural and remote practice settings

Standard of care and state-based regulations

Telepsychiatry practice guidelines

Team-based integrated care

Team-based models of care

Use of telepsychiatry in cross-cultural settings

Visual and nonverbal considerations

Source: American Psychiatric Association (n.d.). Note: * Information is a summary.

Table 3.7 Overlap of primary ethical principles in mental health-focused guides related to telehealth practices*

Primary principle

A PA

АСА

NASW. ASWB. CS WE. & CSWA

NASP

American

Psychiatric

Association

Ensure competence related to

technologies and its impacts on care

X

X

X

X

X

Uphold ethical standards

X

X

X

X

X

Informed consenting practices

X

X

X

X

X

Administrative and documentation practices

X

X

X

X

X

Confidentiality and privacy practices

X

X

X

X

X

Data security

X

X

X

X

X

Data and hardware disposal

X

X

X

X

Intervention

considerations

X

X

X

X

X

Assessment

considerations

X

X

X

X

X

Knowledge of relevant laws and standards including licensure standards

X

X

X

X

X

Ensure ongoing professional development

X

X

X

X

34 Guidebooks and Recommendations Table 3.7 Cont.

Primary principle

A PA

АСА

NASW, ASWB. CSWE. & CSWA

NASP

American

Psychiatric

Association

Seek training, consultation, and supervision for new competencies

X

X

X

X

Representation of provider’s self to public

X

X

Social media use

X

X

X

X

Conducting research

X

Note: * Direct highlighting of topic in documentation.

and disability statuses; means of fostering a strong therapeutic alliance; differences in the application of technology-enhanced techniques as they compare to F2F care; and means of both preventing and addressing challenges, including emergency situations. Beyond these primary foci, part of this gained competency is also a recognition of one’s boundaries of competence. Providers must reflect on their knowledge, realizing that rapid changes may quickly make their knowledge outdated. Further, while some providers may be adept at specific aspects of technology-based care, they may not be as knowledgeable on others.

 
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