Sociolinguistic Approaches to Sibilant Variation in Spanish

I SpainAn overview of the sibilant merger and its development in SpanishRetrospectives and perspectives: originsPossible causes for the devoicing and the unstable sibilant patternsExpansion of the merger: geographical implicationsSpanish emigration to the New World: andalucismo in the precolonial periodDiachronic review and alternative accounts: phenomenon propagation and completionChronological accounts: grammarians and treatise writersAlveolar pair /s/~/z/Alveopalatal pair /ʃ/~/ ʒ/Chronological accounts: graphemesChronological accounts: rhymesChronological accounts: creation of new soundsUpdated modern chronological accountsTracking Old Spanish sibilants: Judeo-SpanishTracking sibilant development: overview of other Romance languagesStabilizing the language: the RAE’s graphic standardization of sibilantsConclusionsNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionSibilants in western Andalusian Spanish: The lack of a Sevillian norm in the Jerezano speech communityIntroduction: the Jerezano speech communitySibilants in Andalusian Spanish: some data about geographical and social distributionsThe Sevillian norm: historical and actual approachesDescriptive linguistic normsSevillian normAnalysis: descriptive data on sibilants in Jerezano SpanishActual data from an oral corpus: global visionsActual data from an oral corpus: sociolinguistic variationTheoretical basis: perceptual variety linguisticsMethodology: corpus-construction for perceptual variety linguisticsAnalysis of perceptual variety linguisticsMetalinguistic concepts of Jerezano speakersPerceptions of Jerezano speakersConclusions: the lack of a Sevillian norm in Jerezano SpanishGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionIntervocalic /s/-voicing in Spanish in contact with CatalanIntroductionSpanish and Catalan in CataloniaPrior treatments of (intervocalic) fricative productionPrescriptive characterizations of alveolar fricative production in Spanish and CatalanEmpirical characterizations of alveolar fricative productionIntervocalic /s/-voicing in Barcelonan SpanishExperimental methodologySocial factors and subject populationLinguistic factorsTest instrumentsData collection methodsData analysis and resultsAcoustic analysisStatistical analysisSocial factors conditioning intervocalic /s/-voicingLinguistic factors conditioning intervocalic /s/-voicingDiscussionConclusionNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionII United StatesDescribing and analyzing variability in Spanish /s/: A case study of Caribbeans in Boston and New York CityIntroduction/s/ variation as reductionA descriptive protocol for Spanish /s/ variationPerceptual coding of segmental alternationsSpectrographic and waveform assessment of frication presenceAcoustic measuresLinguistic and social conditioning factorsLinguistic factorsSocial factorsCase study: Caribbeans in Boston and New York CitySpeakers, data and predictorsResultsReduction and syllable-positionReduction and regional originCoda /s/ among Caribbeans onlyMultivariate analysisSummary of resultsConclusionsNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionVariable realization of final /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish: The reversal of diachronic language changeThe sociolinguistic situation of Cuban MiamiFinal /s/ in Cuban SpanishThe present study: research questionsParticipants and materialsData analysisFindingsLinguistic factorsExtralinguistic factorsDiscussion and conclusionsNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionVariable /s/-voicing by heritage Spanish speakers in the United StatesIntroductionHeritage speakers of SpanishDefining Spanish speakers in the United StatesDemographicsHeritage vowelsHeritage consonantsHeritage /s/ realizationSpanish /s/ voicingAcoustics of voicing assimilationPrevious studies on variable /s/ voicingVoicing assimilation by L2 speakersEvolution of /s/ voicingHeritage /s/ realization in North CarolinaResearch questionsMethodology and participantsAcoustic analysisStatistical analysisResultsFrequency of voicingDegree and location of voicingDiscussion: voicing assimilation in heritage SpanishFactors affecting voicingVariable voicingConclusionsNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionIII Central and South America/s/ weakening in NicaraguaIntroductionThe origin and spread of /s/ weakening/s/ reduction and reanalysis in Nicaraguan SpanishRates of /s/ reduction in Western Nicaragua in the early 1980s and todayQualitative [s]. hypercorrections and sibilant lengtheningInnovative coda /s/ variantsThe effect of age, education and formality on coda /s/ variantsHybrid oral and glottal variantsDiscussion and broader implicationsConclusions and future directionsNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionA sociophonetic approach to /s/-realization in the Colombian Spanish of BarranquillaIntroductionMethodsData collection and corpusDependent variablesIndependent variablesResults of data analysisDiscussion and conclusionGlossaryTopics for discussionSibilants in Ecuadoran SpanishOverview: coda /s/ in coastal and highland dialects“Partial” plural markingVoicing of intervocalic /s/Is /s/-voicing an innovation or an archaic remnant?Ecuadoran rhotics and palatals as an additional source of sibilantsSummary and conclusionsGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionSyllable-final /s/-variation in a Uruguayan Spanish-Portuguese contact varietySpanish and Portuguese contact in UruguayPhonological results of Spanish-Portuguese contactPortuguese influence on sibilants in Border Uruguayan SpanishA comparative diachrony of Spanish and Portuguese sibilant developmentThe diachronic development of intervocalic /s/ in Latin American SpanishPhonetic strengthening and maintenance: the case of Portuguese sibilantsSyllable-final /s/ variation in modern SpanishThe social conditioning of /s/ reduction in SpanishSyllable-final /s/ reduction in border Uruguayan SpanishThe linguistic conditioning of /s/ variation in the Spanish of RiveraPre-consonantal /s/ reduction in the Spanish of RiveraPortuguese influence on word-final /s/ deletion in the Spanish of RiveraThe social conditioning of /s/ variation in the Spanish of Rivera/s/ aspiration in the Spanish of Rivera/s/ deletion in the Spanish of RiveraThe intersection of occupation and sex in the deletion of /s/ in Rivera/s/ Aspiration and deletion as a result of language use and attitudesConclusionNotesGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussionVariable voicing in Argentine Spanish /ʒ/The social context of /ʒ/ devoicingRecent developments in productionLanguage attitudes toward the devoicingTheoretical issues in the devoicing of /ʒ/Generative perspectivesUsage-based perspectives/ʒ/ devoicing from an acoustic perspectiveVoicing as a gradient phenomenonAcoustic correlates of fricative voicingVoicers and devoicersMethodologyDiagnosis of a speakerWord-initial contextsWord-medial contextsFuture directionsConclusionsGlossaryReferencesTopics for discussion