Headaches and Mild Brain Trauma: A Practical Therapy Guide

TheoryA silent epidemicConcussion, mild brain injury and traumaPosttraumatic headachesClassification of posttraumatic headachesTypes of posttraumatic headachesTension headacheMigraineConfusional migraineNeuralgiasPhysiological mechanisms of brain trauma and headachePrimary mechanisms of brain traumaSecondary mechanisms of brain traumaBiopsychosocial approaches to posttraumatic headachesPain processing modelsPain matrixCentral SensitisationCentral reorganisationStress and pain models Diathesis-Stress modelMigraine as an example of the Diathesis-Stress modelAllostasis modelPosttraumatic headache - a functional disorder1Neuropsychological models and posttraumatic headachesPsychotherapy models and headaches Cognitive behavioural approachesCognitive behavioural formulationPredispositionsHeadache symptomsCOGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES: THINKING ABOUT HEADACHESEMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES Headaches hurtEmotional appraisal of headachesBEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCESSOCIAL CONSEQUENCES: SHARING THE PAINHow everything is connectedBibliographyImplementation of a practical biopsychosocial approachAssessment guidanceGetting to know the patient and their headacheReadiness for changePosttraumatic headache and legal scenariosClinical interviewPsychometrics and questionnairesObservation methodsHeadaches and secondary consequencesHeadache maintenanceInterpretation of assessment outcomesInterpretation - headaches and the meaning of lifeInterpretation - persisting headaches due to maladaptive personal style and avoidance behaviourCognitive behavioural headache therapyHeadache service within an integrated health organisationFocus shift in headache therapyCognitive behavioural therapy methodsRelaxation and stress-reduction methodsProgressive muscle relaxationCognitive techniquesHabituation and desensitisationTherapeutic storytellingHypnotherapyPhysical therapies and exercisePacing and fatigue managementAcceptance and Commitment TherapyEmotional Resilience TherapySchema-focused cognitive behavioural therapyRehabilitation of cognitive functionsBibliographyCognitive behavioural therapy for posttraumatic headachesHeadache therapy componentsModule I: engagement and headache assessmentsHeadache interviewIMPAIRMENT RATING FOR POSTTRAUMATIC HEADACHEMeasures of health and quality of life NOTTINGHAM HEALTH PROFILE (NHP)Headache monitoring and rating scalesHeadache monitoring during therapyThe clinical headache reportModule 2: headache clinics for people with mild brain traumaPsycho-medical education, reformulation and reassuranceModule 3: health managementMeta-strategies and complementary aidsHow is relaxation useful?How to practise relaxationPreparing for a relaxation exerciseHealth information: effect of stress on the bodyHealth information: what is activity management? How to pace your life?Exploration of activity managementHealth management and limiting beliefsHeadache coping strategiesMaintenance of coping skillsModule 4: individual headache therapyMild brain trauma metaphor - earthquakeThe Pain Gate and pain processingMigraine and mild brain traumaHeadache therapy session 3: coping with headachesThe cognitive behavioural headache formulationHeadache therapy session 4: how can I improve the quality of my life?Cognitive stimulation and mind-absorbing activitiesTherapeutic reinforcement techniquesPositive reinforcement exerciseHeadache relief imagery - healing paradigmHeadache therapy session 5: meaning and purpose Useful materialHeadache therapy session 6: relax!Headache therapy session 7: the world around meHeadache therapy session 8: using what I have learnt in the futureHeadache therapy session 9: nice to see you againBibliographyAppendix I: therapy worksheetsAppendix II: relaxation scriptsAppendix III: recovering from mild head trauma – a guide for patientsAppendix IV: supplementary material
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