I Global issues

Chapter 2

Emerging sport management challenges in Latin America

Emerging sport management challenges in Latin America: a look at professional preparation

Flavia da Cunha Bastos

Introduction

I start this text designing a Latin American sport management frame, and it is important to say that 2009 was a milestone year in terms of key sport management happenings in Latin America. During that year, a Latin American organization, initially proposed by Laurence Chalip to Rosa Lopez de D’Amico in 2001, was formally established in March 2009 at Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador in Venezuela: the Latin American Association of Sports Management (ALGEDE). In the same year, as a result of a process initiated at the University of Sao Paulo during the first Brazilian Congress, the Brazilian Association was formalized (ABRAGESP). Another organization that plays a significant role in the development of the area in Latin America was founded in 2010 at Mozambique by a group led by Dr Pedro Sarmento of the University of Porto, Portugal. AIGD (Alianga Intercontinental de Gestao do Desporto/Intercontinental Alliance of Sports Management) is a network of contacts between entities and individuals with informal characteristics. Its mission is to gather and disseminate information and knowledge mainly toward the cooperation between Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking countries, which develop sport management.

At the Third World Association for Sport Management (WASM) Conference, I have the mission to bring to the eyes of other parts of the world, aspects of the scenario of sport management in the continent. It is not an easy task and I expect to fulfill it properly. 1 understand that only reflecting, even on some aspects of its development, will certainly represent a great opportunity to project the future of sport management in Latin America and to glimpse the possibility of interaction with the global evolution of the area. We certainly hope to be able to count on WASM and colleagues from all over the world on this journey. Imminent scholars highly involved with the subject have already made analyses of the improvement of sport management in the world. Concerning Latin America, 1 highlight the efforts of Drs Bravo, Li, Machintosh, Parrish, and especially the founder of ALGEDE Dr Rosa D’Amico (Bravo, D’Amico, &. Parrish, 2016; Li, Macintosh, & Bravo, 2012). In Brazil, the starting point and inspiration to address the sport management development was my candidacy thesis to associate professor at USP in 2016. In this study, 1 evaluate the area in the country from 2009 onward (Bastos, 2016).

My involvement with the area is strongly linked to the development of the area in Brazil. I’ve been associated with sport management since 1986, when I was an assistant to the Sport Department Manager of the greatest sport club in Latin America: Pinheiros Sport Club. This practical experience provided me with the first perceptions on sport management. Years later, since 2001, these experiences led me to teach classes about sport administration, economy and sport laws at the bachelor’s and master’s levels at the School of Physical Education and Sport of University of Sao Paulo. As a consequence, in 2003, we started the first research at Research Group in Sport Management - GEPAE and in 2005 this group organized the first Brazilian Congress. As a result of this Congress, the Brazilian Association for Sport Management - ABRAGESP - was founded 2009 and I’ve the honor to have been its first President. My involvement with the area led me to he a member of the board of ALGEDE and the Chair of the Organizing Committee of the ALGEDE Conference in Brasil (2015) and of the Scientific Committee of the ALGEDE Conference in Argentina (2017).

For Brazil, 2009 was also a very special year, very remarkable for sport. Also, it was a very significant year for sport management. It was when the country was selected to host the Men’s Soccer World Cup and the Olympic and Paralympic Summer Games. So, in this chapter, I have considered elements of strategic diagnosis, categorized into four aspects, inspired by Pitt’s article Sport Management at the Millennium (Pitts, 2001). Here they are: literature, those who perform research, organizations that bring together professionals/and academics who work for their development, and professional preparation. From the analysis of these data, I built propositions to guide actions to improve sport management in Brazil. The analysis presented here on the emerging challenges of sport management in Latin America is focused on professional preparation. For this, this chapter begins with the scenario in Latin America, and then introduces a brief overview of sport, some aspects concerning the organization of sport in the region, how the professional activity happens, and then draws a panorama of professional qualification processes.

A brief scenario of Latin America

Latin America and the Caribbean embrace 33 countries and involve great cultural diversity, a mix of languages, ethnicities, and customs. These include Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Co-operative Republic of Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Santa Lucia, Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Spanish is the dominant language, but Portuguese, French and, in some regions, even English and Dutch are also spoken. It also has a wide range of native dialects. Another aspect that reinforces this diversity in the region is the social development itself, as measured by the Human Development Index. This index classifies Latin America as underdeveloped in relation to some parts of the world. For example, other data reveals the alarming situation of citizens living in precarious conditions and a significant number of homeless. Furthermore, the economic situation is also diverse among countries. Some are in economic recession, as a consequence of political instability, corruption, among other factors. Finally, the political instability stems from different natures, such as corruption, discredit institutions and political leaders not committed to social development.

Spo rt, management, politics and sport industry

Talking about sport, as mentioned, in Latin America sport also shows many differences, which can be explained by cultural, political and social perspectives. Some countries focus on some sports, in football, for example. Others focus on other sports, like baseball or in athletics. It is a remarkable diversity regarding sport preferences due to cultural influences in the countries and among them. This diversity is also present at sport performance in the world and in the sport policies. Eight out of the 33 countries appear on the final medal table at Olympic Games Rio 2016. Looking into the American continent as a whole, the performance at Pan American Games shows that the differences are still more evident. These differences may be explained by several points of view:

  • 1 The Imported sports - that is, sports incorporated by local elites - with a particular social organization reproduction.
  • 2 Popularization of some sports - by successful narratives of some athletes, generating identity or stimulating resistance.
  • 3 Social contradictions - some individual success leading to production of heroes.
  • 4 Especially after the 1990s, we have a strong Sport commodification, leading to new sport business.
  • 5 Finally, there is a Non-Professional Management at sport ambience - reinforcing political and economic groups and individual interests.

In economic terms, the recognition of sport participation comes from the last decade of the twentieth century, with the appreciation of the phenomenon, especially linked to the spectacle and bringing with it many investments and economic movement. Allied to the spectacle, the development of the market also included sport as a form of leisure, participation sports and education, all with economic impacts on society (Zhang, Kim, Mastromartino, Qian, &. Nauright, 2018). The environment of sport as a business, therefore, is broad and has developed strongly, especially in countries where the basic needs of citizens are met, enabling greater consumption of sport as practice and entertainment (Mattar, 2013; Zhang et al., 2018). However, the scenario of Latin America as we have seen is different from developed countries. All of these aspects and others lead to a lack of a continental standard. On the contrary, they reinforce diversity, which is reflected in the structure and direction of sport management. Therefore, the frame of sports policies and industry is also diverse, country-by-country.

The attention to the sport management occurs in parallel to mega events hosted by Brazil, in 2014 and 2016. However, the literature, especially concerning policy, management and organizational aspects of sport is limited (Bravo et al., 2016). The authors warn that urgent attention is needed from academics especially referring to the “limited opportunities in which sport management can be studied as a professional area”. Public and policies management in different countries have different structures. Cuba, for example, has a National Institute (INDER) that covers sport, physical education and recreation activities. In Mexico, the structure which is responsible for developing sport policies is the CONADE, the Physical Culture and Sport National Commission. In Haiti, sport is under the Minister of Youth, Sports and Civic Action, which develops Sport in Schools, Sport for All and Sport Games. In Peru, the National Institute is under the Ministry of Education. Jamaica has a Ministry of Culture, Gender, Entertainment and Sport. Argentina has a National Sport Secretary' at the Ministry of Tourism and Sport. Ecuador, Paraguay and Uruguay have a National Secretary of Sport at the same level of other ministries. Colombian Sports Institute and COLDEPORTES are the responsibility of sport system in the country. In 2019, sport has upgraded its status with the creation of the Ministry of Sport. Bolivia, Venezuela and Chile have the same status, with a Ministry of Sports and a National Institute of Sports, which coordinate activities of sport organizations, focused on sport and individual physical activities. In Brazil, there was a Ministry of Sports coordinating the sport system until 2018, focused on elite sport, football and in school and leisure programs. In 2019, the new government places the sport at a secondary place, as one of the social policies at the Ministry of Citizenship, in a Special Sport Secretary. In brief, most countries have their policies coordinated by central government such as a state policy, some with their own ministries, national commissions and so on.

Relating to sport industry', in some countries, sport events such as Pan-American Games, Formula 1, Football World Cup and Olympic and Paralympic Games have an important role in its development. Concerning fitness industry, for example, Brazil and Mexico have the second and third positions in the fitness market in terms of the number of clubs in the world (Figure 2.1) and at Americas, the third and fourth at industry revenue (IHRSA, 2019) (Figure 2.2).

Even when it comes to sports public programs management, Brazil does not do it appropriately. The results of the evaluation made by the study developed by Dr De Bosscher and colleagues under the SPLISS model (Sport Policies Leading to International Sporting Success) show data from sports policies of 16 countries

Number of Clubs in the World Source:Adapted from IHRSA (2019, p. S)

Figure 2.1 Number of Clubs in the World Source:Adapted from IHRSA (2019, p. S).

Largest Markets in America in US$ Source:Adapted from IHRSA (2019, p. 7)

Figure 2.2 Largest Markets in America in US$ Source:Adapted from IHRSA (2019, p. 7).

from different parts of the world (De Bosscher, Shibil, Westerbeek, & Van Bot- tenburg, 2015). In America, Canada and Brazil participated. The objective was to understand which (and how) sport policies lead to international sporting success. In most of the nine pillars studied, concerning aspects such as financing, sport participation and facilities, Brazil obtained very feasible results (Figure 2.3).

Related to Pillar two, which refers to governance, organization and structure, the country reaches a very low score, concerning the following:

  • 1 A clear decision-making structure.
  • 2 A strong involvement of athletes and coaches in the policy-making process.
  • 3 Also, specifically in relation to aspects of management, regarding the fulltime management staff in the National Sport Associations (NSA).
  • 4 As to the level of service-oriented policy toward national governing bodies and national sport organizations, considering the accountability principles and the long-term policies.

Comparing the results of the nine pillars with those from Japan, for example, where the next Olympic Games will take place, we can see that higher investments do not guarantee a good performance in managing policies and pursuing governance principles. This performance reinforces the need of changes in sport management in Brazil. In Chile, we identified a study developed by Adarmes Hen- riquez (2016). The objective was to analyze the current state of the Chilean sport system and evaluate the management of sport organizations. The author performed the analysis on the economic and sports perspective, based on the SPLISS model. Despite the scarcity of available and quantifiable public data on the sport policy highlighted by the author, it was possible to portray at what point Chile is advancing in relation to other countries and points to be improved. Among them, the author highlights the need of development and training of managers and sports authorities who will take care of all these investments (Adarmes Henrfquez, 2016). Concerning Latin America, we can say that there is a range of characteristics, which are pointed out by Bravo et al. (2012) that may be summarized as follows:

  • 1 For most of Latin American countries, sport is an instrument for doing politics and not for promoting social well-being.
  • 2 Sport is an ideological instrument of the State.
  • 3 Some countries do not have a clearly defined sport policy.
  • 4 There is no concern about the massification of sport as a social public policy tool.
  • 5 Sport is supported and funded by a governmental structure.
  • 6 There are different levels of structure (ministerial, secretary of state, department within ministry of Education, Youth or Cultural affairs).
  • 7 The political group in power defines sports policy, so there is no sustainability.
  • 8 The club-based sport development model predominates (Bravo, Velez, Ore- jan, &. D’Amico, 2012).
Scores on the Nine SPLISS Pillars Elite Sports Policy Source:Adapted from De Bosscher et al. (2015,p. 10)

Figure 2.3 Scores on the Nine SPLISS Pillars Elite Sports Policy Source:Adapted from De Bosscher et al. (2015,p. 10).

Before talking about professional preparation, there are important remarks concerning the sport management frame and the image of the manager. These themes were also treated by Bravo et al. (2012) and these remarks continue being true. Sport management as a professional activity depicts a negative image to the world, linked closely to sport governance. It is clearly perceived that management is not undertaken properly in sport organizations, whether public or private. We have had countless examples of corruption, lack of governance, lack of expertise of managers, no ethics and moral values. Another aspect refers to no recognition of sport manager as a profession. Therefore, both do not have credibility, namely the sport management practice and some managers (Bravo et al., 2012).

How is this scenario these days? 1 can give you the example of Brazil, concerning the view about the sport manager’s role. The Brazilian government adopts a national classification of professional activities or occupations (Brasil, 2007). The sport managers are partially cited in this classification. They are cited only as “Social Club Officer” and as “Director of sports department”, reinforcing the focus on the club model. Managers of other organizations of sport industry, as health clubs, non-profit organizations, for example, are not considered. This may be an indication to think about the direction of the manager preparation, either in Brazil or in other Latin American countries. Additionally, professional sport management training in Brazil, and 1 believe in most of Latin America, is predominantly linked to schools of physical education, from undergraduate to postgraduation. A different scenario occurs in other countries and regions. According to Chelladurai (2018), a spurt in the growth in the number of universities offering sport management programs is seen in several countries around the world. Recently, reinforcing this framework, Dr Dowling points out that sport management in some parts of the world is still considered a specialized field inside physical education, more specifically in the area of Physical Education Administration (Dowling, 2018). Within the scope of Latin America, Bravo et al. (2012, p. 127) also consider the close and historical link between sport, education, physical education and amateur sport system in the region.

Professional preparation

Eminent colleagues around the world often discuss this theme. Regarding the place that sport management takes in academic institutions, the academic characterization itself, the production and the scientific diffusion are emphasized (Chalip, 2006; Chelladurai, 2013; Retar, Pisot, & Kolar, 2015). Regarding professional status, Chelladurai (2013) specifies three key points: professional associations, academic journals and training programs. So, getting to the central theme, talking about professional preparation in Latin America is not an easy task. We have not thought much yet, and we have no data to support us in our analysis. Having said that, 1 present information we have about Brazil. In 1978, the first specialization course in sport administration was held at School of Physical Education of the University of Sao Paulo. From the 1970s onward, other types of courses started to be offered by different institutions. They covered subjects of “Sport Administration” for graduates in Physical Education and Sport and other professionals who work in sport organizations. However, undergraduate sport management training has not developed so far.

As referred to in my thesis I made a SWOT analysis of the development of the area, combining quantitative and qualitative information from the literature and official documentary sources in terms of literature, professional preparation and research. They assist me in the evaluation and decision-making regarding possible strategies to improve sport management in the country. The results about the scientific status are presented in a book published by WASM, organized by Drs Pitts and Zhang (Bastos, 2019). Concerning the advances verified, one of them is related to the qualification of professionals, in master’s (professional/academic and doctoral) courses, especially abroad, with part of them becoming teachers in training courses, from undergraduate to doctorate and leaders of groups and research. Rocha and Bastos (2011, p. 100) pointed out, “In Brazil, we are still at an internship initial well in terms of academic background and scientific research in sport management”. Some of the results relating to professional preparation in that thesis were a basis to our reflections relating to Latin America scenario (Bastos, 2016). Beginning with the undergraduate preparation courses, they are offered as short duration courses named as Technological courses. These data were collected on the website of the Ministry of Education (MEC) and magazines. At 2016, Brazil had 46 active courses in different formats and objectives (Table 2.1).

The subject of these courses was Sports Business Management and mainly in Sports and Leisure Management, indicating the tendency I highlighted earlier relating to the non-focus on the sport industry as a whole. Concerning the curricular matrices analysis, we observed that there are still gaps regarding some contents: ethics, finance/accounting/economics and legal aspects of sport. In terms of supply by the country, there is a great inequality. The Sport Business Management courses are predominantly offered at the Northeast Region, while Sport and Leisure Management ones are predominant at the Southeast Region, which reveals a non-valorization regarding the formation of sport management in the country as a whole (Figure 2.4).

A fact to highlight is that in 2009 we had the offer of one bachelor’s degree course in Sports and Leisure Management, at the Federal University of Parana. However, it was not recognized in the middle of Physical Education and in 2014 the course was discontinued.

Table 2.1 Undergraduate Preparation Courses -Technological (Short Duration)

Sport Business Management

11

Organization and Promotion of Social and Sports Events

1

Sport and Leisure Management

34

Total

46

Source: Adapted from Bastos (2016).

Geographic Distribution of the Technological (Short Duration) Source

Figure 2.4 Geographic Distribution of the Technological (Short Duration) Source: Bastos (2016).

At the bachelor’s degree courses in physical education, Quinaud, Farias, &. Nascimento (2018) found that the offer of disciplines in the area of sport management in the curriculum comprises an important initiative to ensure the intervention of future professionals in this sector. However, the authors highlight the very small number of courses that offer such disciplines in the formation of bachelor’s degree in Physical Education (Quinaud et al., 2018). They also found a supply concentrated at federal and state public institutions located in the Southeast, South and Northeast regions as pointed out by Bastos (2016) concerning technological courses. When we sought information about postgraduation, we found specialization and MBA courses. The geographical distribution of the offer is similar to those found in the technological courses, that is, predominance in the Southeast region is more evident in this case. Regarding the type of course, the most offered are specialization courses, and offered at presentational mode (Table 2.2).

We can see a remarkable increase, especially since 2010, with preponderance of those referring to Sports Marketing (Figure 2.5).

We believe that this tendency can be explained by the interest due to the mega events, also showed at the increased number of papers about the subject at

Table 2.2 Distribution by Type and Form of Course Identified

Course

Presential

Distance Learning

Total

Specialization

28

6

34

MBA

12

2

14

Total

40

8

48

Source: Adapted from Bastos (2016).

Postgraduation and MBA Courses Source

Figure 2.5 Postgraduation and MBA Courses Source: Bastos (2016).

ABRAGESP Brazilian Scientific Congresses. When we analyze the denomina- tion of the 48 active courses, we reduce the identification in terms of area and descriptor (Table 2.3), we found a predominance of the sport marketing theme, isolated or associated with management.

Specifically, those courses called Marketing (22) appear as Management and Sports Marketing, Management in Sports Marketing, Management of Sports Marketing, Marketing and Sports Management and Administration and Sports Marketing. In addition, the marketing theme is present in other courses: Man- agement, Training and Sports Marketing, Training and Sports Marketing and Management and Marketing of Sports Business. At master’s and doctoral degrees, from 2011 to 2016, there was a professional master’s program, “The Professional Masters Course in Sports Management”, in the administration area, at the

Table 2.3 Title of Active Postgraduate Courses

Title

Specialization

MBA

Total

Management and Sport Marketing

17

5

22

Sport Management

8

3

11

Sport Management (Leisure orTourism)

1

2

3

Business, Law, Journalism, Education

8

1

9

Other (Fitness Management, Sports Performance, Sport and Leisure Organizations)

1

2

3

Total

35

13

48

Source: Adapted from Bastos (2016).

University Nove de Julho (UN1NOVE), a private university. Unfortunately, this course also ceased to exist due to lack of interest from the University. Besides that, there’s no master’s and doctoral programs in Brazil. But there are some subareas concerning sport management themes in master’s and doctoral programs in some public universities.

The oldest ones are at the School of Physical Education and Sport of University of Sao Paulo and at the College of Physical Education at University of Brasilia. In Sao Paulo, there is a line of study called “Management, Policies, Marketing and Communication in Sports and Physical Education” that is offered at the master’s and doctoral levels. At University of Brasilia (UnB), sport management is under “Social and Pedagogical Studies of Physical Education, Sport and Leisure" subarea. In other countries, there are also technological, undergraduate, postgraduate or specialization courses, and MBAs in colleges and universities, hut frequently those who aim at searching for academic knowledge need to go abroad to study. This aspect reveals a relative positive consequence: some Latin American students may contact different ambiences and attend a tendency pointed out by Danylchuk relating to the impact of internationalization and an increase in international students in universities and colleges (Danylchuk, Baker, Pitts, &. Zhang, 2015).

Other programs are offered by several nonacademic entities in different countries in Latin America, with a focus on update and spreading knowledge: professional entities, corporate universities, national governing bodies and National Olympic and Paralympic Committees - under International Olympic Committee Program. The objective of these courses is to train professionals, some of them focused on segments such as fitness companies, clubs, sport federations, with emphasis on the development of management and marketing themes. In summary, as weaknesses in Brazil, we can point that specialization courses focus strongly on sport marketing, showing that they do not cover the overall contents of sport management. There is no specific academic master’s or doctoral courses. As strong points, we can say that even having a feasible formation, we can say that there are a growing number of postgraduates in the academic field and Congresses.

Even without knowing the real scenario, we can consider some Latin American weaknesses. Besides the lack of information, we have little international recognition, both in the literature and by professional organizations. Another deficit is that there are no specific academic master’s or doctoral courses. This scenario, pointed out by LOTUFO in 2012, shows that there is a clear lack of actions in relation to adequate training, undergraduate and postgraduate courses of quality and concerning continuing education, despite the initiatives that take place in some parts of Latin America, such as the creation of ABRAGESP and ALGEDE and initiatives in some countries. However, strong points may be highlighted: the ALGEDE develops relevant activities, such as conferences and the sport management journal, which promote the dissemination of scientific knowledge and can bring professionals in the area closer to the international level. Regarding the future, given this scenario, and in order to develop the area and training on the continent, it is important to learn from the experience of other parts of the world.

In terms of countries’ experiences, one example for us is Australia, which in the early 2000s was in a similar situation to what we live today. Drs Smith and Westerbeek, educators and members of Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ), analyzed several weaknesses in the conventional Australian curriculum. They suggested to consider the study of ethics more seriously as happens in sport marketing and event management (Smith & Westerbeek, 2004). They also proposed a curricular standardization across the different Australian universities. Years later, in 2007, Taiwan also promoted changes in sport professional formation process. Like in Brazil, the formation was linked - and limited - to the traditional physical education-oriented preparation philosophy. In addition, the formation of sport professionals was not oriented toward the sport industry, which limited the career development of these professionals when they try to go into the commercial sector (Yeh, 2007). This scenario is also shown by Jovanovic (2011), in Serbia, in a study concerning sport management in countries in transition. The author surveyed competitive sport organizations (sport clubs) and sport associations in the country and concluded that in most organizations, top managers could be claimed to have limited accreditation (Jovanovic, 2011).

More recently, the trends in sport management programs are studied by Mir- agaia and Soares, who analyzed the literature on higher education in sport management published in international journals from 1979 to 2014- The authors pointed out current research issues and trends for the future, about that we must reflect, concerning: curriculum and knowledge, accreditation process and quality, pedagogy, technology and e-learning internship, experiential learning and service learning, employability, gender and globalization and internationalization. The authors also highlight the importance of synergy among stakeholders from the academic, scientific and professional environments. Furthermore, they point out that other structural changes need to be done, such as the contextual- ization of the curricula in sport management and the redefinition of objectives and learning outcomes to ensure their compatibility with the needs of the contemporary society.

Ethical issues, social responsibility and gender equality are critical subjects that should be further addressed in sport management education and research. Evidence of gender discrimination is mentioned significantly in the literature, particularly in the occupation of women in managerial positions. Another aspect analyzed concerns the accreditation and accountability process in sport management education that needs to ensure the quality of academic programs according to the global and international approach (Miragaia &. Soares, 2017). This international approach was highlighted by Danylchuk (2011), who considered that sport management was in a position to incorporate internationalization into the body of knowledge, its delivery and the preparation of students and reinforced more recently by other authors denoting that it is a tendency in terms of professional preparation in sport management (Danylchuk, 2011; Danylchuk et al., 2015).

Final remarks

In conclusion, we know that the most consolidated continental associations have as one of their actions focused on the promotion and constant improvement of manager training. We do not yet have much information, and this was an attempt to begin a process of evaluation of the scenario from this point of view. There is a clear lack of actions in relation to adequate training, undergraduate and postgraduate courses and concerning continuing education, despite the initiatives that take place in some parts of Latin America, such as the creation of ALGEDE and other initiatives in some countries. I think that a good way would be to have the support of professional organizations such as ALGEDE and those who develop research, because it is this knowledge that will pave the ground to a better professional preparation.

The challenges facing ALGEDE must be also focused on the internationalization of its actions, breaking the language barrier. I really believe that ALGEDE can handle the process of finding and defining minimum guidelines for manager training, considering the diversity on the continent. Regarding the question raised about the role of training offered on the continent, given the weaknesses pointed out, we can conclude that actions are recommended for its improvement. The propositions made at this time can be considered a starting point for a broader reflection on the area. We consider it of crucial importance that a collective effort be made to further diagnose and evaluate the subject.

This process of evaluation and reflection on the formation of the area, in which all aspects considered in this chapter and others that could be listed, could become the starting point to more effectively seek the maturation of the area. In this sense, the experience of NASSM (North American Society for Sport Management) and other countries in promoting a task force to diagnose and propose actions could be a source of inspiration, involving professionals, researchers, teachers and the continental entity of the area. For this purpose, I have some initial proposals for Latin American colleagues and to ALGEDE:

  • 1 Mapping the existing programs in colleges and universities and categorize them by level: Undergraduate, Specialization, Post Graduate (Master end Doctoral), Technological, MBA and so on by the form of offering - Lecture, Distance learning, mixed and other criteria.
  • 2 Evaluating course characteristics and its quality: Some criteria must be elect, and a strong basis for this process is highlighted.
  • 3 Building courses certification process: The world recognized institution is the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA), a specialized accrediting body “promotes and recognizes excellence in sport management education in colleges and universities at the baccalaureate and graduate levels worldwide”.
  • (Commission on Sport Management Accreditation, n.d.)

Yiamouyiannis, Bower, Williams, Gentile, &. Alderman (2013) reaffirm the need for accreditation: “to prevent the proliferation of diploma mills and provide external accountability of quality of education at legitimate educational institutions” (Yiamouyiannis et al., 2013, p. 52). The authors reviewed the accreditation processes at different accreditation agencies, with particular emphasis on COSMA requirements. They also consider that this process guarantees external accountability “as a form of self-regulation for colleges, universities, and programs that agree upon the principles or standards by which they assess themselves and will be assessed by peers” (Yiamouyiannis et al., 2013, p. 52). These are some points that may be a basis to the reflections and future actions to improve sport management in Latin America. 1 believe that an excellence in professional preparation is an imperative, despite the cultural, economic, political and social diversity and certainly will guarantee a relevant and positive impact on professional practice, scientific development and credibility of the area in the region. Finally, I consider that “the world voice of sport management”, the theme of the third WASM Conference, may be represented by a choir that is formed by different voices. The voice of Latin America is one of them. It needs to be heard and supported so that we have a harmonious and strong sound of sport management worldwide.

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Chapter 3

Sport management curricula in Africa

 
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