The flexible non-linear model is based on optimal recovery, which leads to improved quality of workouts and training adaptations. Assessment of readiness to train and recovety from total life stresses must be examined. Daily workout assessments and testing are important for real-time modifications of workouts in a sequence. When integrated with other proven recovery interventions (e.g. nutrition, flotation, massage, compression, cooling, and sleep therapies) recover)' may be enhanced. Testing (e.g. strength, power, speed, endurance, and agility) is needed for program assessments. Nutritional assessments are also vital and caloric intake is important to meet adaptive demands and for women, for optimal menstrual status.


In essence, the use of an individualized flexible non-linear periodization training model in rugby represents the most modern approach to training for rugby.

The challenges are not trivial as there is a need for daily assessments and alterations in the workouts. Each mesocycle must have its own targeted goals for adaptation. The genetic ceiling for any adaptive behavior is important for maintenance and prioritization of training goals. Non-functional over-reaching can be minimized with workout evaluations and testing. Strength and conditioning professionals must understand the science and be prepared to work with program design, technology' and the modem mgby player to be successful.

Further Readings to Explore the Details

Bompa, T.O. & Haff, G.G. (2009), Periodization Theory and Methodology of Training.

Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2009.

Duchateau, J, & Enoka, R.M. (2011), ‘Human motor unit recordings: origins and insight into the integrated motor system.’ Brain Research 1409, 42-61.

Kraemer, W.J., Fleck, S.J., & Deschenes, M.R. (2021), Exercise Physiology: Integrating Theory and Application 3rd Edition, Philadelphia, PA: Wolters-Kluwer Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins.

Issurin, V. (2014), ‘Periodization training from ancient precursors to structured block models.’ Kinesiology: International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology 46, 3—9. Ratamess, N.A. (2021) The ACSM’s Foundations of Strength Training and Conditioning 2nd Edition, Philadelphia, PA: Wolters-Kluwer Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins.

Newton, R.U. Sc Kraemer, W.J. (1994), ‘Developing explosive muscular power: Implications for a mixed methods training strategy'.’ Strength and Conditioning, 16(5), 20-31 p 20-31.

Zatsiorsky, V.M., Kraemer, W.J., & Fry', A.C. (2021), Science and Practice of Strength Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.


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