The mediating effect of human resource management practice and organizational culture
The mediating effect of human resource management practice
In terms of the relationship between leadership and human resource management practice, a consensus has been reached in the literature that the leaders determine the human resource management practices. First of all, different organizations pay varying degrees of attention to human resource management. For example, the organizations under transformational leadership pay more attention to human resource management than the companies under transactional leadership. Secondly, leadership styles can profoundly impact the human resource management practice. Mumford (2000) argued that to manage creativity and innovation, effective human resource practices must consider the individual, the group, the organization and the strategic environment confronting the organization. The results of Waldman et al. (1987) show that transformational leadership can influence the effect of organizational performance evaluation. Therefore, it can be said that leadership influences human resource management practice, but more empirical research is needed.
Some empirical studies on the relationship between human resource management practices and organizational learning have concluded that human resource management practices can promote organizational learning. The research results of Lopez et al. (2006) support that selective hiring, strategic training and employee participation in decision-making have significant positive effects on organizational learning, and their findings do not support the notion that compensation and reward systems focusing on performance will positively influence organizational learning. Another research of Lopez et al. (2005) shows that human resource management practices have a significant positive effect on organizational learning, and the relationship between human resource practices and organizational performance is mediated by organizational learning. Bhatnagar and Sharma (2005) proved that the role of human resource management is positively related to organizational learning capability. At the same time, the relationship between human resource management practices and organizational learning is covered in some empirical studies. The results of Jerez- Gomez et al. (2005b) show that contingent compensation has a significant positive effect on organizational learning. Gomez et al. (2004) found that investment in training is conducive to the acquisition, generation and dissemination of new knowledge, and tlie improvement of individual commitment to organizational learning. Through empirical research, Chen Guoquan (2007) concluded four aspects of learning-oriented human resource management, which are recniitment, training, performance management and employee development. The analysis of He Huitao and Peng Jisheng (2008) shows that human resource management practices have an impact on organizational learning. The empirical study of Yu Haibo et al. (2008a) found that strategic training, employee participation, perfonnance management and compensation management have a significant effect on different aspects of organizational learning, hi short, the research on the relationship between human resource management practice and organizational learning is not systematic, and this highlights the need for further studies.
In terms of the relationship among the three variables, it was found that transformational leadership improves organizational performance through capital- enhanced human resource management. This serves as a great inspiration for the further study of the role of human resource management in the relationship between leadership and organizational learning: human resource management practice has a mediating effect, but more empirical research is needed to support this notion.
The mediating effect of organizational culture
Literature on organizational learning shows that learning climate plays a significant role in the relationship between leadership and organizational learning. Bass and Avolio (1993) believes that transformational leadership will create a transformational climate, and transactional leadership will create a transactional climate. Studies have shown that learning climate is a necessary condition for organizational learning (Tamienbaum, 1997; Goh, 1998; Watkins & Marsick, 1993; Yang et al., 2004). An atmosphere of tolerance for diversity of opinions and skills (Ford, 1996), or safe atmospheres in which different opinions are not punished (Edmondson, 1999) are conducive to learning. Therefore, many relevant research results and some theoretical viewpoints suggest that learning climate has a mediating effect between leadership and organizational learning (Berson et al., 2006). Leaders can create a climate of freedom, feedback, clear and shared organizational vision and trust (Redmond et al., 1993; Amabile et al.,
1996; Shalley & Gilson, 2004), which is conducive to knowledge generation and sharing. Some smdies also show that transformational leadership influences the organization's patent awards through the partial mediating effect of empowerment and innovation culture (Jung et al., 2003); since leaders support an atmosphere of fault tolerance, employees learn in conducting after-action review (Ron et al., 2006). However, the mediating effect of organizational culture between transformational leadership/transactional leadership and organizational learning requires the support of further empirical research.