China’s Middle Class: The New Social Stratum

I: Concept, function and scope of the middle classThe emergence of the concept of the middle-income group and its impact on the development of Chinese societyA change in the meaning of the middle-income group: from income grouping to social groupsThe emergence of the concept of middle-income group: Understanding changes in social structure from the perspective of incomeThe concept of the middle-income group: A measurement for income inequality and globalization trendsTwo definitions of the middle-income group: The absolute criteria vs. the relative criteriaDefining middle-income groups with Chinese characteristics: The middle-income group as an indicator for building a moderately prosperous society in all respectsConclusionNoteReferences“White collar” workers in the social structure and their function in societyResearch approaches and rethinking of “White Collar”Emerging white-collar groupsA complex and multidimensional social mentalityGenerally speaking, Shanghai’s white-collar workers have a sense of anxiety and pressureShanghai’s S white-collar workers often exhibit behaviors of “Strong Political Orientation” and “Weak Political Participation”Shanghai’s S white-collar workers have a gap in the sharing of social experiences and valuesShanghai’s S white collar group has not yet formed stable norms of behavior, public knowledge system or value recognitionStructural separation and social functions of white-collar workersNotesReferencesOccupational characteristics of the middle-income group in China’s megacitiesThe core occupational characteristic of China’s middle-income group is employmentThe occupations of China’s middle-income group in China are distinctly characterized by industrialization, marketization and bureaucratic imprintingThe declining role of state in shaping the middle-income groupChina’s middle-income group has high occupational stabilityII: Formation and identity of the middle classTrends and structural analysis of the middle-income group (2006-2015)Macro backgroundChanges in income levels and income distribution from the past decadeDefinition and development trend of the middle-income groupStructural analysis of the middle-income groupHousehold registration structureIncome structureEducational structureAge structureRelated policy recommendationsA great deal of prudence should be taken in defining the middle- income groupIn order to expand the middle-income group, it is necessary to increase its labor compensation proportionIn order to expand the middle-income group, attention must be given to enhancing the role of human capitalIn order to expand the middle-income group, it is necessary to continuously deepen reforms and eliminate institutional barriersIn order to expand the middle-income group, attention must be given to preventing new inequalitiesNotesReferencesHousing and the class identity of urban residentsThe question at handLiterature reviewReflection on existing research on class identityDiscussion on research relating to housing inequality, “Housing class” and wealth stratificationResearch hypothesesData, variables and analysis strategiesDataOperationalization of variablesDependent variablesIndependent variablesAnalysis strategyEmpirical findingsBasic characteristics of housing quality and symbolic distinction of residents in the three regionsAnalysis of the influencing factors of residents’ class identityConclusion and discussionNotesReferencesThe social composition of private business owners in ChinaSubject of investigation: Differences in social sources of private business ownersLiterature reviewResearch designDataOperation and measurementStatistical analysis methodAnalysis resultsBasic characteristics of occupational mobility of private business owners as a groupA diachronic description of the trend of occupational mobilityEducation and occupational mobilityParty membership and occupational mobilityThe formation mechanism of the occupational mobility of private business ownersSummary and discussionNotesReferencesA study on the income gap between urban household registrants and rural migrant workers from the perspective of occupational stratificationDelineation of the problem and literature reviewResearch methods and dataMain analysis resultsMain characteristics of urban household registrants and rural migrant workersAnalysis of the income gap between urban household registrants and rural migrant workersMain results of logarithm quantile regression of incomeAnalysis of the income gap between urban household registrants and rural migrant workers based on occupational stratificationMain conclusionsReferencesIII: Middle-class consumptionExpanding the middle-income group and promoting consumption to boost the economy: Research report on the Shanghai middle-income groupScope and development trends of the middle-income groupContribution of the middle-income group to industrial restructuringContribution of the middle-income group to initiation of consumptionLife satisfaction and subjective identity of the middle- income groupPolicy recommendations for expanding the middle- income groupNotesReferencesConsumption trends of the middle-income group (2006-2015)Trends in household expenditure for the middle-income groupConsumption trends and influencing factors of durable goods for the middle-income groupSummary and implications for public policyReferencesFrom emphasizing “Education” to emphasizing “Supply”: Research framework and empirical analysis of sustainable consumption in the urban middle classPractice theory and the infrastructure perspectiveThe supply-consumption system: an infrastructure perspectiveTemporalities of practicesMiddle class consumersSustainable consumption behaviors and attitudes of the middle classModeling sustainable consumption for the middle classMain conclusions and implicationsNotesReferencesMarket competition, collective consumption and environmental qualityAn analysis framework for life satisfactionLife satisfaction and market factorsLife satisfaction and collective consumptionLife satisfaction and environmental factorsLife satisfaction and individual life qualityConstruction of analysis frameworkLife satisfaction of residents and comparisonAnalysis of influencing factors on residents’ life satisfactionResults of the linear regression modelMulti-level linear model resultsDiscussion on the analytical findingsSummary and implicationsNotesReferencesIV: Behavior and value system of the middle classA study on the sense of national identity among the middle class in China’s megacitiesLiterature reviewTourism and social classSense of national identityTourism and national identityResearch questions and research hypothesesTourism association hypothesisTourism class difference hypothesisTourism consequences hypothesisResearch design and empirical analysisResearch designData sourceJoint endogeneity problems and estimation methodsEmpirical analysisAnalysis of differences in selection of different tourist destinationsCorrelation analysis of class and probability of tourism consumptionAnalysis of the impact of tourism on the sensee of national identityConclusion and discussionReferencesMeasurement and comparative study of political attitude of the new social class Based on survey data from six provinces and citiesThe new social class and political attitudesDefining the new social classCharacteristics of the new social class and tendencies in political attitudesMeasurement of political attitudeResearch designData source and samplingMeasurement and operationalization of conceptsDependent variable: Political attitudeIndependent variablesControl variablesResearch hypothesesEmpirical analysis of political attitudes of the new social classComparison of political attitudes among different classesTrust in the government.Perception of safety and securityAwareness about rightsRecognition of authorityInequality awarenessDifferences in political attitudes of different groups within the new social classTrust in the governmentPerception and safety and securityAwareness about rightsRecognition of authorityAwareness about inequalityConclusion and discussionReferencesThe fertility desire of the middle class: An investigation in Beijing, Guangzhou and ShanghaiTheory review and literature reviewFertility costs and cost constraintsIdeal number of children and expected number of childrenFertility desire, family planning policy and fertility theoryResearch data and research hypothesesResearch dataResearch design and research hypothesesDescriptive analysis resultsRegression analysis resultsIdeal number of childrenExpected number of childrenConclusion and discussion
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