Philosophy of Time: A Contemporary Introduction


PrefaceAbout This.BookAcknowledgementsEpistemology of TimeTheoretical Time is Not Folk TimeA World Without Time Is Not a World We UnderstandFolk TimeObjects and EventsTemporal Properties and RelationsIndependent TimeSubstantivalismRelationalismObjection: A Frozen World is PossibleObjection: We Can Have Indirect Knowledge of Substantival TimeFrozen WorldsObjection 1: We Do Not Know There is a Global Freeze (Other Explanations Available)Response: Inference to the Simplest ExplanationObjection 2: Time in an Unchanging World Still Needs the WorldObjection 3: Shoemaker-Style Arguments Do Not Suit Lived ExperienceScepticism about TimeKant’s AntinomiesThesis: Time Has a BeginningAntithesis: Time Has No BeginningElapsing Time and Temporal PassageIdealism or Scepticism?Sextus EmpiricusScepticism about ChangeObjection: This Argument Is Against the Reality of ChangeAgainst Time’s Divisibility Or IndivisibilityThe Argument Against Time As Past, Present, and FutureObjection 1: We Cannot Suspend Beliefs About TimeObjection 2: Scepticism Depends On One’s Metaphysics of TimeKnowledge of Time Through PerceptionThe Causal Truth-Maker PrincipleTemporal Order Cannot Cause BeliefSuggested ReadingsMetaphysics of Time I: Time and ChangeMcTaggart’s ParadoxThe Two Main Concepts of Events in TimeA-seriesB-seriesMcTaggart’s ArgumentSolution 1: A-Series Positions Are Determined By A-Series-B-Series PositionsIndexicalsObjection: The B-Series is Not Enough For ChangeObjection 1: The B-Series Does Not Provide Real B-Series-a-Series PositionsObjection 2: The B-Series Does Not Capture Real ChangeMotion and A-Series ChangeIndexical A-Series ChangeObjection: This is Not Real ChangeAnalogy Between a Fundamental A-Series and Absolute SpaceTense TheoryTemporal PassageThe Unique and Real PresentReal Present and Temporal PassageReal Present and the Real A-SeriesTime Defined By Events and a Static A-SeriesKinds of Tense TheoryPresentismPresentism is IntuitivePresentism Solves Mctaggart’s ParadoxObjection 1: No Real A-SeriesObjection 2: Presentism Lacks Truth-Makers For Truths About the PastObjection 3: Presentism and PhysicsEternalismThe “moving Spotlight”Objection: Events Must ChangeThe Growing Block TheoryTenseless TheoryChange, Static and DynamicR-TheoryMetaphysics of Time II: Change and Persistence in ObjectsConcrete ParticularsAn Object Exists in SpaceSpatial PartsAn Object Exists in TimeEndurantism: An Object is at Each Time it PersistsBeing Wholly PresentObjection: Endurantism Has No Spatial AnalogueThe Persistence of Objects Through ChangeHinchliff’s Four Conditions of ChangeObjection: There is No Analogy For Specific PropertiesLeibniz’ LawNumerical IdentityRelations-to-Times: Temporal Location is Not a PropertyAdverbialismThe Problem of Temporary IntrinsicsIntrinsic PropertiesTemporary Intrinsic PropertiesEndurantismRelations-to-Times and AdverbialismTemporal Parts: A Different Object is at Each Time An Object PersistsObjection: Objects Are ContinuantsResponse 1: An Object Can Have Infinite PartsResponse 2: This Objection Requires Continuous TimePerdurance: The Ordinary Object is the Persisting ObjectExdurantism (Stage Theory): The Ordinary Object is the Object at Each TimeIntuitions About PersistenceNotesSuggested ReadingsPhilosophy of Physics and TimePhysics Without TimeSubstantivalism and Early PhysicsRelative SimultaneityRelative FramesRelative is Neither Private Nor SubjectiveRelative TimeThe Constant Speed of LightInertial FramesPossible Absolute Simultaneity and Temporal OrderMinkowski Space-TimeRelative Temporal OrderSTR and Relative Temporal OrderObjection: There is Absolute Temporal Order in StrResponse: Not All Earlier Events Are Causally Related to Later EventsCausal Order and Perceived Temporal OrderCausal Order and the Intuition of Temporal OrderBackwards CausationEntropyBardon’s Entropy Account of PerceptionObjections to Relative TimeBergson’s Objections to Relative TimeObjection 1: Real Time is ContinuousObjection 2: Relative Time is Merely Imagined TimeObjection 3: Experienced Time Requires Absolute TimeTense Theory ObjectionsTense Theory and Temporal OrderTense Theory and Relative SimultaneityPresentismPrivileged Frames of ReferenceThe EtherObjection: We Cannot Detect the Privileged FrameTenseless TheorySuggested ReadingsPhilosophy of Language and TimeTime and the Linguistic TurnMetaphors of Temporal PassageObjection: Metaphors of Passage Have MeaningMerely Apparent Metaphysical MeaningModifiersTemporal Properties of Linguistic ExpressionsTokensPropositionsTruth-Makers and FactsTruth-Makers For Propositional Variation in Truth-ValueObjection: Propositions Are Abstract and Not in TimeTruth-Makers and TokensImplicit ContextToken-Reflexive Truth-ConditionsLinguistic Responses to Mctaggart’s ParadoxIrreducible TenseTense Language and TokensObjection 1: Propositions Cannot Change Truth-Value in Tense TheoryResponse: Tense is a ModifierObjection 2: Tense Tokens Are Not Merely Linguistic EntitiesResponse: The Tokens Only Undermine Mere Linguistic SolutionsTenseless FactsObjection: Some Tensed Propositions Cannot Have TokensResponse: Date-Reflexive TheoryTense LogicLogical Operators and Truth-ValueTense Logic and the Metaphysics of TimeObjection 1: We Talk as if Tense Are Properties, Locations, or FactsObjection 2: Tense Logic Assumes PresentismObjection 3: Tense Operators Do Not Need An Unreal Past and FuturePhilosophy of Mind and TimeTime is Only in the Mind: St Augustine’s ArgumentObjection 1: Time is Unreal Not Mind-DependentObjection 2: The Past and Future Are RealObjection 2: The Present Can Have DurationTense TheoryTenseless TheoryTemporal ExperienceThe Appearance of Time in the WorldTime We Do Not ExperienceTime We Do ExperienceObjection: Time-LagResponse: Apparent TimeApparent RealityPhenomenological PresentismAppearance of Actual TimesDurationTemporal OrderExperiences of ChangePerceived ChangePerceived Change and Philosophical Theories of TimeTemporal PassageIllusionists and VeridicalistsPhenomenological Models of TimeRetention Theory: The Tripartite Structure of the Phenomenology of TimePhysical Time and Phenomenological TimePrimary Impressions in Husserl’s Retention TheoryProtentions and RetentionsObjection: NestingResponse: Descriptive AbstractionPerceptual Experience and Retention TheoryExtensionalismObjection 1: No SuccessionResponse: Diachronic Co-ConsciousnessObjection 2: Diachronic Co-Consciousness Does Not Connect Different ExperiencesResponse: Overlap TheoryObjection 3: The Overlap is Not ExplainedObjection 4: Time-Consciousness Must Have a Tripartite StructureNotesSuggested ReadingsPhilosophy of Cognitive Science and TimeThe Neural Correlate of Consciousness (NCC)Reasons For NCCsNCCs and CausationThe Relationship Between the Temporal Structure of Consciousness and NCCsIsomorphismHeteromorphismTimingThe Ncc Has No Relation in Time to the ExperienceObjection 1: Causation is Not Possible Across Different Time SeriesObjection 2: We Cannot Know From Empirical Research When Consciousness HappensThe Ncc is Earlier or Later Than the ExperienceObjection 1: Denies the Possibility of Mind-Brain Identity TheoryObjection 2: It is Difficult to Know From Empirical Research When Consciousness HappensThe Ncc is Simultaneous With the ExperienceThe Timing of Free WillMeasuring the Timing of the WillObjectionsResponse: We Should Assume That Apparent Simultaneity is actual SimultaneityRejoinder 1: Phenomenology is Not a Theoretical ConstraintRejoinder 2: Apparent Simultaneity and Absent DurationLimited Experience in TimeSimultaneity ThresholdsTemporal IllusionsExamples of Temporal IllusionThe Cutaneous “Rabbit”The Flash-Lag EffectThe Phi PhenomenonIllusions of Simultaneity and Temporal OrderIllusions Are Evidence of Heteromorphic RepresentationObjection: Hidden TimeIllusions of SimultaneityIllusions of Temporal Order and DurationPhilosophical Positions On TimePresentism and the Growing Block TheoryEternalismTense TheoryTenseless TheoryRationality of TimeRational and IrrationalTemporal BiasPresent Bias (P-Bias)Future Bias (F-Bias)Parfit’s SurgeryThe Rationality of Tense BiasReality is More Important Than UnrealityObjection: This Only Works For Presentism and Present BiasWe Have Control Over the FutureObjection: There Are Significant Uncontrollable Future EventsBiases Give An Evolutionary AdvantageObjection: Evolutionary Explanations Are Neutral With Respect to the Rationality of BeliefsNear Bias (N-bias)Reality of the Near Over the FarObjection: We Often Want Unpleasant Things Sooner Rather Than Later, and Pleasant Things Later Rather Than SoonerPersson’s Explanation of Temporal BiasPerceptual BiasThe Mechanism of Spontaneous Induction (MSI)Imagining Sequences From the Present Into the FuturePersson’s Proposal to Overcome Temporal BiasTemporal NeutralityEvent NeutralityDeathThe Symmetry ArgumentTense and DeathDeath and F-BiasNoteSuggested ReadingsPhilosophy of Art and TimeTemporal ArtObjectionsRejoinder: What Defines An Artwork in Only Some Cases requires Time (or Space)Sauvage’s Concepts of Temporal ArtworkObjection: We Can Infer Time Through All ArtworksTemporal Artwork As Constraining ImaginationFormal Properties of Temporal ArtworkInstant GodArt’s Representation of TimeRealist PaintingPainting and TimeMovementTemporal Art and TimeDeleuze’s Direct CinemaTime Cannot Self-RepresentThe Movement in the ImageEphemeral ArtPhilosophical Theories of Time and Temporal ArtMusic is Inexplicable Given Four-Dimensional Four-Dimensional-Space-TimeArt, Bergson, and Relativistic PhysicsRelative Time and Temporal ArtPhilosophy of Time TravelDefining Time TravelTime Travel and Space TravelSpace Travel By Leaving the Previous SpaceTime Travel By Leaving the Previous TimeForward Time TravelSkippingBackward Time TravelPersonal TimeCausation in Time TravelEpiphenomenal TravelCausal TravelCausal LoopsSelf-Creating and Uncreated ObjectsThe Time Machine Instruction ManualWear and Tear ParadoxFeynman’s Time-Travelling ParticleChanging the PastThe Grandfather ParadoxMultiple TimelinesObjection 1: The Past is Not ChangedResponse: The New Timeline is CreatedObjection 2: A Created Timeline Has the Same Problems As the Grandfather ParadoxPseudo-Time TravelParallel Universe TravelCausation Between Parallel WorldsBack to the Future Time TravelSatisfying RegretNotesSuggested ReadingsBibliography