Attention, Genes, and ADHD

The Aims of Behaviour GeneticsWhy are People Different?The Tools of Behaviour GeneticsAn Example of Genetic Analysis of ADHDWhat is ADHD?The Australian Twin ADHD Project (ATAP)How common are symptoms of ADHD in these families?Are there key correlated behaviours?Testing for zygosityWhat are the genetics of ADHD symptom number?What is it like being a twin?Is ADHD a Continuum or a Discrete Category?Multivariate genetic analysis and the relationship between measuresExtensions of the twin designDiscussionReferences: The Diagnostic Genetics of ADHD Symptoms and SubtypesDiagnostic GeneticsCategorical Versus Dimensional SystemsHeritabilityAustralian Twin ADHD Project (ATAP)Concordance DataGenetic AnalysisItem AnalysisUnivariate Item AnalysisMultivariate Item AnalysisDiscussionReferences: The Developmental Genetics of ADHDStability and Changes in SymptomatologyThe Long-Term Outcome of ADHDPsychopathology in Adult Relatives of Young People with ADHDTrends in Molecular StudiesDiscussion: Familial and Genetic Bases of Speech and Language DisordersThe Search for Phenotype DefinitionsStudies of PhenotypesIncidence/PrevalenceGender as a Risk FactorFamilial AggregationStudies that Suggest a Genetic Component/Genetic StudiesComorbid DisordersStudies of children with comorbid speech and language disordersPilot DataGenetic ExplanationsSummaryReferences: Comorbidity of Reading/Spelling Disability and ADHDDefining Reading and Spelling DisabilitiesEpidemiological Evidence for the High Comorbidity of ADHD and RSDQuantitative Genetic Studies of RSDMolecular Genetic Studies of RSDEvidence for Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD and RSDConclusionsReferences: Causes of the Overlap Among Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct DisorderMethodAssessment of ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms.ResultsDiscussionReferences: Aetiology of the Sex Difference in the Prevalence of DSM-III-R ADHD: A Comparison of Two ModelsDifferences Between ADHD Boys and GirlsSEX DIFFERENCES IN THE PREVALENCE OF ADHDPresent StudyResultsDiscussionReferences: Single Gene Studies of ADHDIntroductionGeneticsMolecular StudiesRecent Studies Investigating Single GenesGene to BrainFragile-X SyndromeReferences: Molecular Genetics of ADHDIntroductionCharacterisation of the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic StudiesDesign of Studies for Molecular GeneticsMolecular GeneticsGenetic Data AnalysesMolecular Genetic Studies of ADHDSummary and Future DirectionsReferences: The Genetic Relationship Between ADHD and Gilles De La Tourette SyndromePhenomenology and Natural History of ADHDNeuropsychological Assessment of GTS and ADHDNeuropsychology of GTSNeuropsychology of comorbid GTS and ADHDFamilial relationship between GTS and ADHDMolecular Genetic Studies of GTS and ADHDSummaryReferences: Implications of Genetic Studies of Attention Problems for Education and InterventionDiagnosisComorbidityInterventionFamily DynamicsLanguage and ADHDComorbidity and SchoolingImplications of Molecular GeneticsEthical IssuesAgenda for Psychiatric GeneticsConclusionClearer identification of ADHD subtypesReferences: Child Psychiatry in the Era Following Sequencing the GenomeIntroductionCLINICAL CONCEPTSADHD as a diagnostic categoryADHD as a multifactorial disorderADHD as a coinorbid disorderADHD as a predominantly male disorderGENETIC RISK MECHANISMS Mode of operation of genetic risk factorsUniversality of genetic risksStrength of genetic effects“Good” genes and “bad” genesSearching for Susceptibility GenesAssociation methodsQuantitative trait loci (QTL) approachesFINDING OUT WHAT GENES DO How will sequencing the genome help?How do genes function?Clinical Benefits of Genetic ResearchPharmacogeneticsNature-nurture interplayDiagnosisGenetic screeningCounsellingEthical issuesConclusionReferences