B.l Independent Language Learning Task - Learning Plan Prompts

Independent Learning Plan

Big goal

What is the area (or areas) of English that you most want to improve?

If you have a clear goal and a clear reason for this goal, it will be easier to plan and learn successfully.

Achievable smaller goal(s)

What specific things can you focus on to achieve your bigger goal? Choose one or more small goals to work on over a fixed period of time.

Interests and motivation

Sometimes it can be difficult to stay motivated when you are doing

independent study. One way is to use your interests in your study. Can you use any of your interests in your learning to help you achieve your goal?

Learning styles

We are all individuals who learn best in different ways. What do you know about your learning styles, and how can you use your learning styles effectively in this plan?

Resources

Please list some learning resources you will use in this learning plan.

Resources can be books, website, movies, people, or places - anything you will use.

Discuss reasons for your choices and how you will use them to achieve your goals.

Learning

Successful language learning involves more than just trying to memorise new language. You also have to understand new language, think, and monitor your ways of learning, reviewing, using, and experiences language.

Evaluation

What can you do to see if vour learning is being effective?

Anything else?

What other ideas and/or information do you think is important for you in this learning plan?

В.2 Coded Transcript of an Individual Independent Learning Experience (task 1)

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

1

(Student reading)

Cognitive processing

2

I’m not sure about this...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

3

Ah English is difficult...

Metacognitive monitoring - ease of learning

4

What should I do? Hram...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

5

(Begins to write on the paper)

Metacognitive control of learning

6

(Writing on the paper)

Well, at the moment, what I want to do is increase my TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) score.

  • (Note: TOEIC is an English language proficiency test widely used in Japan.)
  • (Reading)

So this means that...my big goal will be increasing my TOEIC score, and my small goal will be, if I look at the different TOEIC sections

Cognitive processing

7

OK.

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

8

860....860 points, 860 points would be ok...hmm (Writing)

To get 860 points, in English is....

(Writing)

Because...because I want to be a teacher, be a teacher. If I get 860 in TOEIC, I will pass... pass... test

Ah, it is not pass, what is it...

Cognitive processing

9

(Takes out electronic dictionary)

Metacognitive control of learning

10

To be exempt...exemption......ah here it is

Cognitive processing

11

(Erasing, writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

12

(Erasing, writing)

Cognitive processing

13

Ah I feel a bit nervous

Affective processing

14

Exempt, exempt, exempt...

(trying to correctly pronounce the word) Exempt the first exam

Cognitive processing

15

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

16

(Writing)

Cognitive processing

17

Is this ok? Is it ok?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

18

What were my separate scores for listening and reading?

Cognitive processing

19

I should know these...

Metacognitive knowledge - self-knowledge

20

(Starts to look through the paper prompts)

Metacognitive control of learning

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

21

(Looking through the plan prompts)

Interests and motivation...resources...interests and motivation...

  • (Reading)
  • (Reading aloud) Sometimes it can be difficult to stay motivated when doing independent study. One way is to use your interest in your study. Can you think of any way to use your interest in your learning to help you achieve your goal, or do you have any other ideas to keep your motivation up?

How to increase my motivation for TOEIC study...

Cognitive processing

22

That is a bit difficult...

Metacognitive monitoring - ease of learning

23

What should I do, is there any interesting way to study TOEIC...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

24

(Starts to read again)

Metacognitive control of learning

25

(Reading aloud) Learning style...we are all individuals...what do you know about your learning style and how can you use your learning style effectively in your plan?

Eh??

(Reading aloud) What do you know about your learning style...how can you use your learning style effectively in this plan. Resources...please list some...resources can be books, websites, movies, people, places - anything you will use. Discuss why 'ou chose them, and how you will use them to help you achieve your goal, learning goals.

Cognitive processing

26

Right, Ok.

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

27

(Eyes goes back to the beginning of the plan prompts)

Metacognitive control of learning

28

Achievable smaller goals - what specific things can you focus on to achieve your big goal. Choose one or more small goals.

OK, small goal...vocabulary, vocabulary, grammar,

reading......and...listening... there is no speaking

in the test. That’s it...hmm......so the time has

come to start....

Cognitive processing

29

(Looking outside of the room)

I wonder what everyone else is doing now?

Off-task processing

30

Well...my handwriting is not good...but it is

Metacognitive monitoring -

probably ok...

judgement of learning

31

(Reading again)

Metacognitive control of learning

32

(Reading) Well first...vocabulary

Cognitive processing

32

(Looking outside of the room again)

Oh, there is Mai...I guess she is speaking English - amazing...is she thinking in English as well? I can’t do that...

Off-task processing

33

Thinking in English is not possible for me...

Metacognitive knowledge - self-knowledge

34

Hmm...first is grammar, no vocabulary', vocabulary...

Cognitive processing

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

35

But I don’t know if I really want to do it...or should do it...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

36

Actually, I really just don’t want to study at all

Metacognitive monitoring of affective processing

37

(Sits back more deeply in seat......looking at papers)

Metacognitive control of learning

38

Specific...specific....is there anything other than vocabulary? ... 10 or 20....only 80? No...per week.. .how many weeks.. .what about grammar? Nah, maybe I don’t need to study grammar...

I know it alright and sometimes really well...

Grammar is ok so that leaves vocabulary and listening and reading...Specific...specific...what am I supposed to write about specifically.

Cognitive processing

39

Hmm...it is interesting when you are thinking just by yourself.. .I’m thinking of food...

Off-task processing

40

OK, time, I don’t have time

Metacognitive knowledge - task knowledge

41

So focus...OK... (starts writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

42

(Writing)

New vocabulary....is this spelling ok?

And...

Ah! maybe it is a good idea to read books too!

Reading is useful...what if do that book......ah

maybe not, that is different... I need business related stuff......

Hmm what I can do is listening...how should I... listening...business related listening...

Well to start with I will use a TOEIC textbook... maybe that is ok...

Cognitive processing

43

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

44

What else? Listening materials - can I use a TOEIC book for this? Not really.. .what should I do?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

45

Ah, if I could do talk with some about this, it would be good - I would like to share ideas about this, as it would make it better...hmm

Metacognitive knowledge - cognitive knowledge

46

I am just going to go out of the room for a bit and have a look

(Leaves the room, and enters the learning centre, starts to look at learning materials)

Metacognitive control of learning

47

Oh, I really don’t want anyone to hear me doing this - I hope there is no one around (Note: Here the student is making reference to the fact that they are wearing a microphone and speaking out loud as part of the VPA protocol. While this is the case of the research method interfering with the process, it is also a clear example of affecting processing interrupting learning)

Affective processing

48

What should I do?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

49

Listening

Metacognitive control of learning

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

50

Listening resources...Ah watching movies is probably not a good choice...Ah here is something. (Looking at Books) Listening Master... Reading Master...

(Looking at a TOEIC learning materials section) Ah all the books here are old. This is too old - it is for the older version of the test. 860 level text...ah but I think this is also for the old version....

Cognitive processing

51

Actually, I don’t really now...what should I do...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

52

Ah are there any of my classmates around - I want to get some other opinions about this.

Metacognitive knowledge - cognitive knowledge

53

Ah look at that student there - she is writing loads!! Uh oh, I’m in trouble. Everyone is probably doing that. Ah look, there is Ayaka and she is writing too - amazing!! There are all doing it...oh no...

Affective processing

54

(Studentgoes back to the room)

Metacognitive control of learning

55

Everyone is working hard - uh oh.......I’m not good

Affective processing

56

(Yawning)

Physical state

57

OK. So now.

Metacognitive control of learning

58

This is...topic...goal.... if it is to become a good husband... to do this I have to learn how to cook well, or things like that, so I if think in this way if it is to get a score of 860 in TOEIC, I need to be able to use vocabulary and then....eh... reading......Ah!

Read, read, read what? Read paragraphs, paragraphs

Cognitive processing

59

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

60

(Writing) Read paragraphs quickly...Is quickly correct? (Checks dictionary)

Yes quickly...and...understand...understand clearly...

What about listening.. .In order to get 860 points... listening... what should I do for listening...

Be able to read quickly and understand clearly... that is necessary. Then for the listening side?...How can I improve my listening ability?

Cognitive processing

61

Ow, my tooth hurts.

Physical processing

62

I hope I can finish up with the dentist today...

Off-task processing

63

(Refocusing, sits in more erect position, moves shoulders back) Eh...understanding clearly

Metacognitive control of learning

64

Ah listening...what am I supposed to do for listening...listening...I can’t break this down...

hmmm...So listening is...to listen is......to

improve my ears, I should.......

Ah not paragraph - it should be passage. Passage (checking dictionary).. .yeah Passage

Cognitive processing

65

(Yawning)

Physical state

66

I’m not really sleepy, I am just yawning.

Metacognitive monitoring of physical processing

(Continued)

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

67

Yawn, what is yawn in English? (checking dictionary) ...YAWN...

Hmmm....I wonder what my teacher is doing now....

Off-task processing

68

Ah, I have to think of something here.

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

69

To improve my listening I must first...to improve my listening must first...basically the only thing to do is, I just have to do a large amount of listening

Cognitive processing

70

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

71

(Writing)

Interests and motivation....

Because it is independent study...to increase motivation...pair work would be good but...an interesting way of learning. ...an interesting way... interesting...

Making something not interesting interesting...

If I have to read in English, there is not really any information or topic I want to read about

What is good? motivation....

Vocabulary only, related vocabulary, like for business

Reading more quickly - that is not specifically related to business though...

More vocabulary - maybe I should practice my English pronunciation - vocabulary

Cognitive processing

72

What should I do?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

73

Interesting business English...enjoyable way of study...business related...that’s the way, is it? Studying about business, making it enjoyable.

Cognitive processing

74

Ah now I am getting confused, I don’t know what to do....

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

75

Hmm...How can learning business words be enjoyable? Even in Japanese, I don’t really use them...and English is difficult right?

Cognitive processing

76

Ah I really don’t know what to do now...

I’m thinking about stuff I don’t usually think about...ahh...what should I do?

Metacognitive ,monitoring - judgement of learning

77

I’m sleepy now...ahhhhh

Physical processing

78

This is not good...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

79

(Student sits up in the chair) Vocabulary is...

Metacognitive control of learning/ control of physical state

80

Vocabulary is......even if vocabulary is not

interesting I think I can continue to study. I just have to memorize them, that’s all. Maybe it is ok if it is not interesting. Then maybe I can try and make listening and reading study interesting...

Cognitive processing

81

Why do I have to keep doing this plan...

Affective processing

82

(Returns to task)

To use my interests...

Metacognitive control of learning

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

83

To use my interests...interesting conversation topics...what about advertising?...watching tv is not connected, nor are using movies or music....

Movies? watching movies... but how can I connect that to business?...maybe there are some about business. If so, and I watch them... this could work for listening and for vocabulary...

Cognitive processing

84

I will go and have a quick search... (Goes out into the library area)

Metacognitive control of learning

85

(At the movie section looking through the movies) Working, working movie...not animation, adventure, biography.. .documentary... documentary...what is this movie?... documentary......inside man

Cognitive processing

86

(Meets two other students, S2 and S3, who are also working individually on the same task)

S2: We are going to finish now S: Finish?

S2: Yeah, she already finished S3: Haha

S2: So, I decided to finish now. I get so bored easily, so I just wanna talk to someone S: Eh...I’m jealous (S2 and S3 leave)

Off-task processing

87

How are they finished already!! That’s amazing...! am not enjoying this...

Affective processing

88

Documentary...job, job.. .documentary...a job- related documentary... Ah, a lot of bad movies.

Cognitive processing

89

Ah this is no good. I can’t find anything

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

90

(Continues looking)

Metacognitive control of learning

91

Oh, this is sooo difficult

Metacognitive monitoring - ease of learning

92

Oh this looks really interesting...this is really interesting... (referring to a movie)... Highwayman.. .oscar.. .oscar....

This looks really really interesting, but is it any good for my purpose?

I wonder what everyone else did for big goals and small goals....

Cognitive processing

93

(Goes back into room)

Metacognitive control of learning

94

Too difficult....

Metacognitive monitoring - ease of learning

95

(Yawning)

Physical state

96

Oh, I feel bad, I am really starting to lose my

Metacognitive monitoring of

concentration now

affective and physical processing

97

I really don’t have any good ideas...no good ideas

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

98

(Goes back to read plan)

Metacognitive control of learning

99

I have to improve my motivation again...Yeah, I guess as I thought...listening is...

The only idea I have is watching a movie.

Cognitive processing

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

100

Will this be ok I wonder?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

101

At least that should be a bit interesting Works for listening and vocabulary...mmmm... sometimes

Cognitive processing

102

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

103

(Writing)

Sometimes watch business related movies... ah, not business but...maybe business is ok....

What else...

Read an English book

Cognitive processing

104

(Writing)

Metacognitive control of learning

105

(Writing)

What can I read - I don’t like reading in Japanese

never mind in English......I wonder will this have

the opposite effect and lower my motivation? Hmm, but there might be some interesting books... but reading is....

Cognitive processing

106

What should I do...

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

107

Ok - I’ll just do this

Metacognitive control of learning

108

There is nothing else I can do

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

109

Ehhh...learning style...

(Reading)...what do you know about your learning style...what do you know about your learning style.. .how can you use your learning style...

Learning Style...what is it?...my learning style....

and how can you use......how do I use it in this

plan......

Cognitive processing

110

What do this mean? I don’t understand what this

Metacognitive monitoring -

means...

judgement of learning

111

Oh and I’m starting to feel sleepy...I’m sleepy...I

Metacognitive monitoring of

want to go home....

Oh I really want to discuss this with my friends now...

physical and affective states

112

Well, I don’t know what learning styles means

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

113

So I am going to skip this. (Moves on to next prompt)

Metacognitive control of learning

114

(Reading) Please list some resources you will use for this learning plan. Resources can be books, websites, movies, people, place - anything you will use. Discuss why you chose them and how you will use them to help you achieve your learning goals....

First, movie...what movie...well...first I should just watch. Or maybe actually I should use movie when I am bored of other kinds of studv......

Or maybe I should watch it every week.

Or first do some difficult stuff, and then watch a

movie......Ahah, maybe that way I would be able

to relax.......

Cognitive processing

Student Verbalisations and/or Actions

Type of Processing Occurring

115

Ah...I should have written down my current score, and what improvement I want.

(Note: here the participant is referring to their English language proficiency score.)

Metacognitive knowledge - task knowledge

116

Ah that was a mistake...Ah I made a mistake...what should I do....

What else is there to do...

Ah but does it really matter what kind of text - maybe just to improve my general listening and reading is ok...is that ok? maybe ok?

Vocabulary.. .what should I do?

Metacognitive monitoring - judgement of learning

117

OK......Specific, specific things

Metacognitive control of learning

118

Specific things...grammar, no vocabulary... vocabulary is...mm, I need to memorize.... OK, for now I will memorize vocabulary, memorize new vocabulary

Cognitive processing

119

I’m sleepy....

Physical processing

122 Appendices

 
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