The Routledge Handbook of Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in Africa


AbbreviationsI: Conceptual perspectivesThe frontiers of CT-COIN in Africa - emerging threats and regional security architecturesConceptual and contextual contoursTransnational perspectives on CT-COIN in AfricaRegional perspectives on CT-COIN in AfricaNational perspectives on CT-COIN in AfricaAlternative perspectives on CT-COIN in AfricaReferencesExploring the concept of terrorism: the morphology of organised violenceIntroductionSocio-psychological conceptionsLegal conceptions of terrorismTerrorism as defined in a political contextThe Boaz Ganor re-conceptionA response to GanorExpanding the definition of terrorismConclusionNotesReferencesMapping the contours of terrorism and counterterrorism in AfricaIntroductionConceptual and historical overview of terrorism in AfricaCurrent trends on terrorism in AfricaAl-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)Boko HaramAl-ShabaabOverview of counter terrorism in AfricaCounter terrorism in Africa: principles and praxisNational counter terrorism effort: Nigeria versus Boko HaramRegional effort: Sahel countries and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic MaghrebThe African Union counter terrorism effortsGlobal efforts at countering terrorism in AfricaConclusionNotesReferencesCounterterrorism and postcolonial crisis in AfricaIntroductionEvolving a phrase for a phase: post-colonial Africa and its crisisTheorising counterterrorism for postcolonial AfricaContinental counterinsurgency regimes and practices in postcolonial AfricaExtra-continental counterterrorism regimes and practices in postcolonial AfricaImplications of counterterrorism for postcolonial crisis in AfricaConclusionReferencesGlobalisation, terrorism, and counterterrorism in AfricaIntroductionConceptual definitions and debatesGlobalisationTerrorismInsurgencyCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency (CT-COIN)Globalisation, terrorism, and counterterrorism in AfricaLocal roots of terrorismGlobalisation as an impetus to terrorism in AfricaConclusionReferencesSaudi Wahhabis and jihadi terrorism in Africa: Between fairy tales and conspiracy theoriesIntroductionAn imaginary Islamist internationalSaudi Arabia as a victim of terrorismOn the limits of religious indoctrinationFluid categories and easy confusionsObstacles to Wahhabi proselytismConclusionNotesBibliographyThe global war on terror and its African frontIntroductionReview of relevant literature and conceptualisation of terrorismThe global war on terrorAfrica and the age of terrorAfrica's contributions to the war on terrorConclusionReferencesRadicalisation, violent extremism, and de-radicalisation in AfricaIntroductionConceptualisation: violent extremism, radicalisation, and de-radicalisationRadicalisationViolent extremismDe-radicalisationOverview of violent extremism in AfricaFactors contributing to radicalisation and violent extremism in AfricaModes of radicalisation by violent extremist or terrorist groups in AfricaIndoctrinationBrainwashingHypnosisPropagandaRecent de-radicalisation interventions in AfricaConclusionReferencesLaws of armed conflicts, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency: Emerging conceptual and empirical contours in the battle spaceIntroductionInternational laws designed to govern the moderation of armed hostilitiesLOAC, "old wars" and "new wars": evolution towards a solutionLegal challenges inherent in small wars regulated by big lawsHearts and minds in laws of warCase study: armed conflict and the challenge for LOAC in NigeriaStereotyping the battle space: counterterrorism or counterinsurgency?The footprints insurgency and LOAC legal bandwidthConclusionReferencesInformation and communication technology, cyber-security and counterterrorism in AfricaIntroductionConceptualisation: ICT, cyber security and cyber-terrorismICT and cyber-security in a violent worldAfrica's emerging ICT and cybersecurity infrastructureIT-driven counterterrorism and cyber-security policy in AfricaMauritiusNigeriaSouth AfricaContinental framework: the African Union cybersecurity conventionThe deficits of science, technology, ICT and cyber-security in AfricaStrategic considerations for effective cyber security in Africa: toward a positive cyber hygieneConclusionReferencesParticipatory security in AfricaIntroductionSecurity crises in Africa: a reviewThe state and civil society in Africa: conceptual and theoretical frameworkThe nexus between state and civil society in security provisioningCivil-military relations for security provisioning: volunteering for civilian joint task forcesChallenges and prospects of functional partnership between the state and civil societyConclusionReferencesII: Transnational perspectivesUN counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations in Africa: Paradigm shifts and emerging structuresIntroductionConceptual issuesWhat is counterterrorism (CT)?What is counterinsurgency (COIN)?What is the difference between COIN and CT?Background: terrorism, insurgency and CT-COIN in comparative perspectiveinvasion of Saudi Embassy in Khartoum, Republic of SudanPan Am Flight 103 bombing in Lockerbie, United KingdomUS Embassy bombings in Kenya and TanzaniaMombasa bombing, Kenya-2017: Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) terrorist activities in the Sahel-2017: Al-Shabaab violent extremisms in Somalia, Kenya and the sub-region of East Africa-2017: Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency in Northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)UN counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations: the case studies of CTC, CTED and CTITFCTITFOffice of the high commissioner for human rights (OHCHR)UN counterterrorism strategies in AfricaThe challenges facing the implementation of UN global counterterrorism strategy in AfricaDeconstructing the "Four Pillars"Conflict and underdevelopmentEducation, religion and cultureVictims of terrorismPillar II—measures to prevent and combat terrorismCommunity policing and intelligence initiativesPillar III—building states' capacity to counter terrorismPillar IV—ensuring respect for human rights and advancing the rule of lawConclusion: towards an effective CT-COIN framework for the UNPillar I—CT and COIN with a human facePillar II—prevention is better than curePillar III—state capacity-buildingPillar IV—respect for human rights and the rule of lawReferencesEuropean Union's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaIntroductionConceptual frameworkCounterterrorismCounterinsurgencyEurope and the global war on terrorPreventionProtectionPursuitResponseThe Africa-EU strategic partnership amidst insurgencyCountering transnational terrorism: is Africa truly immune?ConclusionNotesReferencesNATO's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaIntroductionThe North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO): evolution and transformationTheoretical framing of NATO's path to counterterrorismNATO's counterterrorism policy guidelines versus global practical realitiesNATO and violent extremism in Africa: fighting justly for strangers or "responsibility to protect"?NATO-EU co-operation: in search of pragmatic counterinsurgency mission in AfricaConclusionNotesReferencesAfro-European partnership for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionConceptualising terrorism and insurgencyTerrorism and insurgency in Africa: a threat to peace, security and regional developmentAfro-European partnership for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaNotesBibliographyUnited States' counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaIntroductionConceptualizing terrorism, insurgency, counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyUnited States' counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaCombined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA)The US Africa commandTrans-Sahara counterterrorism partnershipChallenges of US CT-COIN in AfricaConclusionReferencesUnited Kingdom's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency policy in AfricaIntroductionThe global nature of terrorist threatA brief overview of security and insurgency in AfricaHistory of insurgency in AfricaImpact of history of conflict on AfricaThe United Kingdom's development and security objectives in AfricaWhy Africa?Challenges of United Kingdom counterterrorism and counterinsurgency assistance to AfricaConclusionReferencesFrance's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaIntroductionFrance perception and approach to counter terrorism and counter insurgencyFrance: conflicts, terrorism and insurgency in AfricaOverview of France counterterrorism operations in AfricaThe Maghreb counterterrorism operationAFISMA and "Operation Serval": between peacekeeping and French counter operationsMINUSMA: UN counter terrorism/insurgency operation"Operation Barkhane": a counterinsurgency in G5 SahelMISCA and "Operation Sangaris" in the Central African RepublicLake Chad Region: France's CT-COIN Operation in "Zone of (In) Stability"Challenges and implications of France CT-COIN operations for AfricaUN, France and the dilemma of CT-COIN operations in AfricaFrance counter operations and the context of Francafrique policyHuman rights abuses under French operationsThe "war economy" and economic exploitationConclusionReferencesChina's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency strategy in AfricaIntroductionBackground to Sino-African Relations in the 21st centuryChina's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency initiatives in AfricaChina's grand strategy for Africa: the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC)China's military co-operation with African States, the AU and RECsCountering violent extremism through peacekeeping: China's participation in peace support operations in AfricaChallenges to China's CT-COIN Drive in AfricaConclusionReferencesIII: Regional perspectivesAfrican Union: Emerging architecture for regional counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionConceptualisation: terrorism, insurgency, counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyBackground: the anatomy of terrorism and insurgency in AfricaAU's legal and institutional frameworks for CT-COINThe legal infrastructure of CT-COIN in AfricaInstitutional framework of CT-COIN in AfricaThe challenges of AU's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency frameworkConclusionReferencesECOWAS: Emerging regional architecture for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in West AfricaIntroductionThe complex region of West Africa and security challengesDevelopments and regional dynamics of terrorism in West AfricaAssessment of ECOWAS CT-COIN initiativesAnti-terrorism related conventions/treaties and institutional mechanismsCounterterrorism financing initiative in West AfricaCapacity building initiativesECOWAS Counterterrorism Strategy Tracker (ECTS-Tracker)Extra-regional initiatives in the fight against terroristsProspects and challenges of implementing the ECOWAS CT-COINConcluding remarksReferencesIGAD: Emerging regional architecture for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in the Horn of AfricaIntroductionIGAD in a historical perspectiveBackground: terrorism and insurgency in the Horn of AfricaAl-Shabaab: a transnational terrorist groupInsurgent GroupsIGAD's legal and institutional framework for counter terrorism and counter insurgency (CT-COIN)The legal Infrastructure of CT-COIN in the IGAD regionStrategies and programme priority areasEarly warning and early responsePreventive diplomacy and mediationDealing with transnational threatsIGAD's approach to countering terrorism and insurgency in the Horn of AfricaIGAD's role in SomaliaIGAD's role in South Sudan: preventive diplomacy and mediationThe challenges of IGAD's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency frameworkConclusionReferencesSouthern Africa: Regional architecture for counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyIntroductionConceptualizing terrorism and insurgencyCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency: a comparative analysisThe global counterterrorism and counterinsurgency master planAfrican Union's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency driveNature and causes of terrorism and insurgency in Southern AfricaFailed state and state fragility in Southern AfricaSouthern Africa's vulnerability to terrorism and insurgencySouthern Africa's regional strategies to combating terrorism and insurgencyThe Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP)Strategies designed to decapitate terror networksSouthern African Development Community: counter terrorism strategiesChallenges of CT-COIN in Southern Africa: regional policy optionsConclusionReferencesGulf of Guinea: Regional architecture for anti-piracy and maritime securityIntroductionGeo-strategic importance of the Gulf of GuineaDynamics of piracy and maritime security in the Gulf of GuineaAnti-piracy initiatives for the Gulf of GuineaYaoundé Code of Conduct as a regional security instrumentObstacles to the implementation of the Yaoundé CodeStrengthening the implementation of the Yaoundé Code of ConductConclusionNotesReferencesLake Chad Basin: Emerging regional architecture for counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyIntroductionBackground: The Lake Chad BasinMapping violent non-state actors in the Lake Chad BasinEmerging regional security architecture in the Lake Chad BasinGeo-strategic politics of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in the Lake Chad BasinConclusionReferencesIV: National perspectivesThe state and the fight against Boko Haram insurgency in NigeriaIntroductionThe Boko Haram insurgencyCounter insurgency operationsProspects of the non-military options in the fight against insurgencyConcluding remarksReferencesUganda: The state and its struggle against the Lord's Resistance ArmyIntroductionLRA insurgency and power struggleImpact assessmentEffect of insurgency on the stateEffect of insurgency on the local peopleCounterinsurgency (COIN) strategies to address the LRA insurgencyLocal communal counterinsurgency (COIN) initiativesUgandan government's counterinsurgency (COIN) strategiesInternational and regional support to counterinsurgency (COIN) drive in UgandaLessons learnt from the state and its struggle against the LRAConclusionReferencesSomalia: Al-Shabaab, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in a recovering failed stateIntroductionDefining terrorism, insurgency, counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency counter in surgency: debating viewpointsState collapse and the rise of insurgency in SomaliaSomalia's counterterrorism and drive: From post-war reconstruction to national securityAfrican Union counterterrorism-couterinsurgency strategyUS counterterrorism-couterinsurgency strategy in SomaliaRethinking AU and US CT-COIN strategies in SomaliaConclusionReferencesEgypt: Transnational terrorism, counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyIntroductionConceptual/theoretical considerationsThe internal dynamics of Egyptian society and insurgency/terrorismThe nature of terrorism and insurgency in the Sinai PeninsulaCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency in EgyptAlternative strategies for engaging terrorism and insurgency in EgyptConcluding remarksReferencesLibya: Rethinking humanitarian intervention and the dilemmas of counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionConditional state sovereignty, "Responsibility to Protect" (R2P) and the biopolitics of interventionFrom humanitarianism to regime change: NATO and the overthrow of QaddafiRegime change and the dilemmas of counterinsurgency in post-Qaddafi LibyaConclusionBibliographyTanzania: Counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in an unstable RegionIntroductionGlobal and regional signpostsTanzania's insurgency and terrorismThe context and scope of Tanzania's counterterrorism strategyLegislation for CT-COINInstitutional design: Tanzania's architecture for CT-COINBilateral response to counterterrorismTerrain matters: counterterrorism and local peculiaritiesChallenges of CT-COIN in TanzaniaCorruptionInsufficient resources in combating terrorismPrevalence of insecurityCompeting prioritiesConclusionReferencesAlgeria: The struggle against Al-Qaeda in the MaghrebIntroductionThe geography and strategic location of AlgeriaIslam and radical ideologyThe global significance of AlgeriaNational politicsCases of terrorism in Algeria, 2010-2017Algeria's counterterrorism and counterinsurgency (CT-COIN) strategiesThe carrot: soft CT-COIN approachThe stick: hard CT-COIN approachRecent "Hybrid" strategiesResponses of international alliesAlgeria's assistance to other countries in Africa on war against terrorismPolicy blueprints: tackling terror menace in AlgeriaConclusionReferencesSierra Leone: Warlordism, complex emergency and counterinsurgencyIntroductionConceptual discourse: key terminologiesTerrorismInsurgencyCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency (CT-COIN)WarlordismComplex emergencyHistorical overview of a complex conflict in Sierra LeoneWarlords, RUF insurgency and the use of terror in Sierra LeoneComplex emergencies of the war in Sierra LeoneThe diamond-terror linkage in the context of Sierra LeoneRethinking CT-COIN in failed statesCT-COIN measures and legislation in post conflict Sierra LeoneConcluding remarksReferencesEthiopia: Counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in Africa's volatile HornIntroductionTerrorism, counterterrorism and internal opposition: a conceptual noteThe legacy of historyThe wider impactTerrorist actions against EthiopiaRegional counterterrorism responseEthiopian state counterterrorism responseWho is the terrorist?Effectiveness of counter-terrorist policies in EthiopiaChallenges of Ethiopia's counterterrorism policyConclusionPostscriptReferencesV: Alternative perspectivesCivil society, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionCivil society, counterterrorism and counterinsurgencyCivil society and ambivalent connections with counter terrorism and counter insurgency (CT-COIN)Case I: NGO work and dangers of terror connectionsCase II: NGO work and the dangers of terror currency remittanceConclusionReferencesHumanitarian aid and terrorism in the Sahel: Preventing or fuelling conflicts?IntroductionPoverty, Wahhabism and Jihad: some missing linksHumanitarian aid and military action: no love lostAre humanitarian workers "Useful Idiots"?The challenges of the implementation of integrated approachesNotesReferencesCivil-military cooperation: Joint military-civilian operations in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in North-East NigeriaIntroductionThe concept and evolution of civil military (co) operationThe emergence of the civilian joint task force in North-East NigeriaMilitary command and the nature of civil-military operations in the North EastConclusionReferencesViolent non-state actors: The challenges of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionThe difficulty of conceptualizing terrorism and insurgencyThe challenge of hybrid VNSAsDispelling territorial claimsFluid categories and adaptive VNSAsMobilisation, the case against hearts and mindsObstacles to counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaPorous bordersChallenges to intelligence sharingConclusion: Adapting strategies to AfricaReferencesDefence contractors, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionAn overview of foreign and local defence contractorsDefence contractors, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in conflict zones in AfricaDefence contractors, CT-COIN and African securityConclusionNotesReferencesPrivate Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) and national security in AfricaIntroductionCrisis of security and the imperatives of PMSCs and PSCs in AfricaPMSCs in Africa: services and contending issuesChallenges of PMSCs in AfricaConclusionNotesReferencesCivilians in the frontline of counterinsurgency operations The Civilian Joint Task Force in the war against the Boko Haram in Northeast NigeriaIntroductionHistoricizing the emergence of the Boko Haram insurgencyPolitics and counterinsurgency in NigeriaFormation of the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF)The CJTF in the war against the insurgencyConclusionNotesReferencesChild soldiers, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaIntroductionChild soldiers and children in war-conceptual and theoretical framingTerrorism and insurgencyCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency (CT-COIN)Historical evolution of child soldiersChild soldiers, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in AfricaCauses of child soldiering in AfricaEffects of child soldiering in AfricaEradication of child soldiering in AfricaConclusionReferencesGender, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency in North-East NigeriaIntroductionConceptual, discourse: gender, terrorism, insurgency, and CT-COINGenderTerrorismCounterterrorism (CT)InsurgencyCounterterrorism and counterinsurgency (CT-COIN)Background: terrorism and insurgency in AfricaGendered construction of CT and COIN in North-Eastern Nigeria: women and girls as perpetrators and victimsGendered construction of insurgency, counterinsurgency: Boko Haram during the state of emergencyEngendering CT-COIN: females as instruments of warThe impact of insurgency and CT-COIN on the livelihood of womenImpact of CT-COIN on WomenThe use of female as combatantsConclusionReferences
 
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