Noncommercial Risks

(See Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency; Products and Services.)

Nongovernmental Organizations

(See also Civil Society Organizations.) Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including community-based organizations, are important to the World Bank Group because of the skills and resources they bring to emergency relief and development activities. NGOs also foster participatory development processes. Nongovernmental organizations involved in development projects are usually one of three types: support (for example, fiscal, technical, medical, or educational), advocacy (for example, environment, legal, or special interest), or representative.


Open Access

(See also Open Data; Open Development; Open Knowledge Repository; Publications.) In 2012, the World Bank announced the implementation of a new Open Access Policy for its research outputs and knowledge products. The new policy built on earlier efforts to increase access to information at the World Bank and to make its research as widely available as possible.

The centerpiece of the policy was the creation of the Open Knowledge Repository (OKR), launched in April 2012, the official open access repository of the World Bank. The OKR contains more than 16,000 research and knowledge products from thousands of works including published books, editions of the World Development Report, Policy Research Working Papers, Economic and Sector Work studies, journal articles, World Bank Group annual reports, and independent evaluation studies.

In support of the new policy, the World Bank adopted the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) copyright license for content formally published by the Bank. This license—the most accommodating of all licenses offered by Creative Commons—allows users to use, reuse, share, build upon, and distribute the Bank's formally published work, even commercially, as long as proper attribution is given. World Bank content published by third-party publishers is available in the OKR under the more restrictive Creative Commons licenses.

While much of the Bank's research outputs and knowledge products were available for free on the institution's website and other channels, the new Open Access Policy marked a significant shift in how Bank content is used, reused, disseminated and shared.

Open Access Policy


Open Knowledge Repository


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