Black Families and Recession in the United States: The Enduring Impact of the Great Recession of 200

Perspectives and theoretical frameworks for studying African American familiesIntersectionalityColor-blind racism and privilegeStructural racism and intergenerational transfersThe new racismConclusionReferencesRace and its use in American societySystematic racism and how it is maintainedThe problem of the twenty-first centuryStructural racism: A tale of two AmericasConclusionReferencesThe Great Recession of 2007–2009: Causes, consequences, and impact on African American family lifeWhat caused the banking crisis?Hidden costs of the Great RecessionLabor market effects and social costsWhat makes the 2007–2009 Recession “Great”?How the Great Recession impacted African American family lifeThe aftermath of the Great Recession: What brought the recession to an end?New financial legislation post-recessionThe Dodd–Frank ActConclusionReferencesHousing and wealth: How the Great Recession shattered the American DreamA history of housing segregation in the United StatesDifferential impact on American communitiesPredatory lending and racial discriminationHardest-hit cities in the United StatesBlack populations in the hardest-hit cities: Impact on specific African American communitiesMemphis, TennesseePrince George’s County, MarylandConclusionNoteReferencesHow the Great Recession changed household economics for African AmericansWealth and home ownershipChanges in daily household expensesLoss of assetsNeed for public assistance following the Great RecessionConclusionReferencesThe widening of the racial wealth gap during and after the Great RecessionHousehold wealthWealth and class differencesFactors related to the accumulation of wealthIncome disparities and household financial characteristicsDemographic profiles by race/ethnicity: Family structure, education, and intergenerational wealth transmissionCollege enrollment and completionPublic sector layoffs among African Americans workersCuts in public sector employment: More damaging for African American familiesSavingsRetirement accounts and investmentsRecommendations for retirement security among BlacksThe role of income in mending the wealth gapConclusionReferencesThe impact of incarceration on African American familiesIncarceration and the perpetual punishment of African AmericansThe impact of incarceration on childrenConclusion: Policy considerations and future researchReferencesProgress in African American communities during the Obama administration and beyondEnhancing health with the Affordable Care ActEducationCriminal justiceAfrican American judicial appointeesConclusionReferencesDiscussionTen years after the Great RecessionThe effect of the financial crisis on home ownership among African American families ten years laterInequality: Historical impact on African AmericansReferences