Women and sport in South Korea: challenges and achievements as stepping stones to the future

Kyungock Yi Hyunmi Heu and Bona Lee


South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. South Korea is a highly developed country and the world’s 12th largest economy by nominal GDP. The world’s 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer; it is a global leader in many technology and innovation-driven fields (South Korea, 2020).

When comparing Korea’s gender equality level internationally, it ranks 10th among 189 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP, 2017), but 118th of 144 countries in the Gender Gap Index (GGI) of the World Economic Forum in 2017 (WEF, 2017). In particular, gender equality indices, such as the ‘Gap of Economic Activity Participation’, ‘Gender Gap of Men and Women’, ‘Percentage of Women in the Board of Directors’, and ‘Percentage of Female Parliament’ are significantly lower than those in many countries. Therefore, it seems that women’s representation in the economic and political sphere is lower than in many countries.

South Korea participated for the first time in the Olympic Games in 1948 and has since achieved good results at the Olympics, the largest sports festival in the world. In 1988 when the country hosted the 24th Olympiad in Seoul, it was 4th in the overall medal tally (gold 12, silver 10, bronze 11); at the 2008 Beijing Olympics 7th (gold 13, silver 10, Bronze 8); at the 2012 London Olympics 5th (gold 13, silver 8, bronze 7); and at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics 8th (gold 9, silver 3, bronze 9).

From the 1948 London Olympics to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics, the total number of gold medals won by female athletes at Olympic Games was 38 (42% of medals won). Through the outstanding performances of female athletes, a large role in Korea’s ability to become a world-class sports country was developed. In particular, female players have achieved remarkable achievements with world-class skills in table tennis, basketball, volleyball, handball, hockey, and other ball games, as well as archery, shooting, judo, taekwondo, weightlifting, rhythmic gymnastics, figure skating, short track, and speed skating. However, after retirement of the athletes, the percentage of women leaders in sports teams and female executives in sport organizations is around 20% on average, significantly lower than for men.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine women and sports in South Korea, focusing on gender equity and the lives of girls and women, their challenges and successes from school, community (sport for all) all the way to high-performance sports. Specifically, the history of women’s sports over 100 years is divided into physical education (PE), elite sports, and community sports. In this way, we hope that the understanding of women’s sports will be broadened, as well as providing the basis for marking the 100-year history of women’s sports.

Physical education

South Korea’s hierarchical society was abolished after the Gabo Reform (1894), which was followed by the establishment of a modern school system. A small number of government schools were established, while gymnastics and recreation were introduced as subjects in a Christian school established by missionaries. At the same time, these modern schools began to introduce PE in their curriculum.

From the opening of the port (1876) to the Japanese Colonial Period (1910-1945), Korea had to endure a gloomy period of being subjected to foreign powers with no prospect of independence in sight. With the opening of the port in 1876, Korea signed treaties with the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, and France, and a new wave of foreign cultures was introduced, along with Western civilization.

In this process of modernization, which was part of being in a colonial state, even school sports followed a basic capitalist system. During this period, Western culture was introduced, and gymnastics and recreation became part of modern PE and taught at schools. The introduction of modern PE became the starting point of the process of transitioning from recreational or martial arts sports (which only the ruling class of past eras practised) to sports whereby all students participated as part of the school curriculum. Several women set up women’s movements and introduced women’s sports activities. Schools were opened only for female students in and around Seoul by several foreign women and missionaries. The need for PE in the form of systematic instruction was recognized, and gymnastics was included in the regular curriculum, and so the era of female PE began. In addition to regular PE subjects, extracurricular activities and elite PE began to spread to schools throughout the country. Based on this, various sport activities such as national sports events and sports day were introduced, not just in terms of the history of Korean sports but also in terms of the history of women’s sports.

From 1945 to 1980, the school PE programme was used as part of national policy under government control which developed into an educational system. In the early period, health hygiene was emphasized, but it gradually developed towards pursuing more essential goals and PE for health, exercise, physical fitness, and leisure. The school’s sports day at this time was not just a school event but a communication venue for enjoying sports with the local community (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014a).

From the 1970s, the Korean government established middle and high schools to foster athletic talents, implemented a student athletic system, and began supporting elite sports. On the other hand, the school sports activities among female students at this period mainly involved learning contents and sports activities programmes centred on activities expressing physical beauty such as school day, sports competitions, dance presentations, and mass games. Also, unlike the development of elite sports for male sports organizations, female sports organizations were set up in schools, and sports teams organized in schools managed to improve the performance of female students. It served as a stepping-stone for development.

Between 1980 and 2000, a period marked by rapid industrialization, modernization, and globalization, the number of Korean women contributing to the economy increased dramatically, and women’s activities began to increase as women advanced into professional high-ranking positions. As a result of these changes, Korean women enjoyed a socio-cultural rise, to the point where they have now reached a transition from the women’s development movement to the gender equality movement.

In the 1980s, major sports events such as the 1988 Seoul Olympics were held in the country, and as elite sports grew, it seemed that Korea has become an advanced sports country, at least on the surface. However, the country’s school PE programme has experienced a plateau due to the absence of holistic education and educational policies focused on functional and pragmatic knowledge acquisition. During this period, female students’ participation in sports activities was rather low. Therefore, the need for PE programmes related to female students has been raised and discussed since the late 1990s. In response, the government has promoted gender equality in PE classes and tried to stimulate interest among female students, so that they could voluntarily participate in PE activities.

In the 2000s, students’ physical deterioration as well as bullying and maladjustment of students have emerged as social problems. Accordingly, the government set its focus on creativity and personality as the key to future education and began to emphasize the importance of school PE. At school, the curriculum was reorganized to become more student-centred, not leader-centred, with focus on teaching students the essential values of PE. In addition, efforts were made to supplement the laws and systems through policy.

However, even today, in many sports activities, female students have lower participation and satisfaction rate than male students. Han Tae-ryong (2010) conducted a survey on the participation of students in sports activities. A total of 3,085 students from 90 schools across the country were involved including 662 elementary schools, 1,304 middle schools, and 1,119 high schools. Around a number of factors, female students responded at a lower rate than male students: “I think physical education is important”, “I like physical education”, and

“I actively participate in physical education”, “I am satisfied with the PE class”, “The current PE class is interesting”.

According to the current level of participation in the school sports club competition, among 161,751 students participating in the 2014 school sports club competition, 109,664 (68%) were male and 52,087 (32%) were female. In 2015, of 203,957 middle school students, there were 136,703 males (67%) and 67,254 females (33%) (Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, 2016). Despite the efforts of the government, PE teachers, and sports majors, teenage girls’ participation in school sports clubs has remained low.

The government, school PE teachers, and sports leaders continue discussing how to promote PE among female students and how to educate them. In February 2015, the Seoul Metropolitan of Education, Seoul Federation of Teacher’s Associations, and the Korean Federation of Teacher’s Associations developed and implemented a programme under the title “Exciting Sports Program for Female Students”. In April 2015, the Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women held the ‘Gender Equality Proclamation Ceremony for Activating Female Students’ at their annual conference. It can thus be said that various efforts to promote the participation of female students in PE are currently in progress.

Since the 2000s, female students’ participation in sports activities has gradually improved or else become more active because of the emergence of new sports, increased interest in female sports programmes, and the revitalization of school sports clubs. Nevertheless, participation of female students in PE still leaves much to be desired. For now, though, the most important task for revitalizing female students’ PE is to find ways that can attract female students’ interests, induce spontaneous participation, and improve their physical fitness.

Elite sports

South Korea’s elite sports include personal achievements such as improving individual performance and achieving records, improving national status on behalf of the nation, promoting national integration and self-esteem, promoting PE and professional sports, revitalizing the sports industry, and strengthening competitiveness at the national level. In addition, in 2012, the Korean government’s policy for elite sports was first of all to discover and nurture excellent athletes, second of all to run domestic competitions so as to improve performance, and finally to expand training facilities and support sports science.

Korea opened itself to the outside world in 1876 with the Treaty of Ganghwa-do, and since then the influx of Western culture has brought with it many changes to the country. In particular, Christianity was preached, and schools were established in and around Seoul by missionaries, and in those, school sports were included in the curriculum and sporting events were held in and between these schools.

Sports teams were set up in terms of school athletic activities, and various sports organizations and local sports activities were developed. However, these were mostly male-oriented. As a result, women then organized themselves in terms of women sports organizations which led to women’s sports activities being held in girls’ schools. Since then, sports competitions, sponsored by the media, have encouraged women’s sports activities. In 1930, the ‘Chosun Women’s Sports Promotion Association’ was set up, and sports competitions were held regularly in cooperation with the media and other sports organizations. Although the association offered sports-related lectures, education, and promotional activities for women, it was dissolved in 1938 (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014b).

In 1945, Korea was liberated from Japanese rule, and since then, South Korea’s elite sports were revitalized through the reconstruction of the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee and the establishment of a governing body for each sport. South Korea has since joined the International Olympic Committee and the Asian Games Federation and participated in the Olympics and various international competitions.

The 1948 London Olympics marked the first time that Korean female athletes appeared on the international stage. Korean women’s elite sports have since developed to the point where they became runners-up at the 1967 World Championships in women’s basketball held in the Czech Republic and the women’s team championships at the Sarajevo World Table Tennis Championships in 1973. In the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games, women’s volleyball won the bronze medal, which was the first medal in the history of Korean participation in the Olympic Games. This achievement led to the founding of the Korean women’s professional volleyball league in the 1970s.

Since the 1980s, Korea has hosted major international sporting events, which have had a profound impact on the development of women’s elite sports. By hosting major international events such as the 1986 Seoul Asian Games and the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, Korea’s elite sports helped showcase Korea to the world. In particular, the remarkable achievements of Korean sportswomen at the 1988 Seoul Olympics brought about a remarkable change in gender discrimination in sports activities in Korea. From the 2000s to the present, Korea is striving to develop world sports in the era of globalization through hosting the 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup, the 2002 Busan Asian Games, and the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics.

However, the male-oriented glass ceiling of Korean elite sports is almost impenetrable. In November 2019, the Korean Sports & Olympic Committee enrolled 128,602 athletes. Of these, 29,638 were women athletes, accounting for only 23% of the total, despite the total number of gold medals won by female athletes in all past Olympics was 38, accounting for 42% of the total tally. Of the 21 Korean medals at the 2016 Rio Olympics, nine medals were won by female athletes (42%).

Unfortunately, the ratio of female leaders in elite sports and female executives in sports organizations is less than 20% which is significantly lower than that of men (Table 11.1). In 2019, the proportion of female executives in the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee was eight out of 52, accounting for 15.3%. The

Table 11.1 2019 Female Executives of Sports Organizations


Korean Sport & Olympic Committee

Subcommittees in KSOC

Sports Organizations

Executives %

Executives %

Executives %






















Source: Korean Sport & Olympic Committee (2019)

proportion of women in subcommittees was 86 out of 348 or 24.7%. In addition, there are currently 65 sports organizations, and only three of them (Luge, Squash, Roller Sports) have a woman as chair.

Recently, sports gender equality is one of the most important issues for the International Olympic Committee (IOC). In December 2014, the IOC announced that it would increase the percentage of women participating in the Olympic Games to 50% in its ‘Agenda 2020’ (International Olympic Committee, 2014). It proposes to the NOC of each country to ensure more than 30% of sports executives are female.

Korea is also striving to legislate the 30% quota system for female executives and leaders in sports. In 2019, a legislative debate was held for the ‘30% quota for female leaders’, and efforts were made to enact national legislation, but it remains a challenge. Sports is recognized as one of the most powerful platforms for promoting gender equality and boosting leadership among women and girls. We expect that increase in women participation in sports will lead to the expansion of women leadership and gender equality.

Community sport (sport for all)

In South Korea, the Sports Promotion Act was established in 1962 with the aim of promoting PE and strength of the people, leading to a healthy spirit and a cheerful life. Sport for all refers to everyday sports activities that everyone voluntarily performs to improve health, fitness, self-satisfaction, and quality of life regardless of social conditions (gender, age, status, religion, etc.).

From the end of the 19th century to the war of liberation and the liberation of Korea in 1945, people tried to strengthen the power of the people domestically and abroad and to reclaim their sovereignty from Japanese imperialism. During this period, women were not able to overcome the general view of kitchen being the woman’s place due to Japanese colonial education policy. In addition, while the industrialization process encouraged women’s social activities, the traditional patriarchal consciousness remained dominant (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014c).

The state encouraged gymnastics to popularize PE among the people, and the regional ‘sports day’ made it possible to participate in PE in general, which meant historically an important start towards sport for all. As the nationalist movement against foreign powers spread, clubs (Gu-rak-bu) were formed as sports organizations, and sports events were organized with the support of the media.

During the Japanese colonial era, sports organizations began to expand nationwide, and as sports activities were organized around the cities and sports games were promoted, women also began to be provided with opportunities for sports through social organizations. There were no distinct women’s sports organizations, but newspapers held athletics events to encourage women’s sports, and women were able to participate in games. Women also served as a cheering squad or else provide economic support for athletic meets and athletics in general. In addition, various sports activities were provided to women through social organizations such as YMCA, YWCA, and Scouts which played an important role in gradually recognizing the importance of active and voluntary physical activities among women (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014c).

Since 1945, social organizations such as YMCA and YWCA have promoted sports activities such as gymnastics, folk dance, and recreation. But sport for all only started in earnest when legislation was enacted in 1962 through the enactment of the Sports Promotion Act. In terms of women’s sports, women who were educated established the Korean Women’s Sports Association (1954) and the Women’s Sports Promotion Committee (1952) to organize various sport activities for women. The establishment of women’s sports organizations and sports activities by each social organization gave women opportunities for PE and thereby expanded sport for all. In particular, the importance of women’s sports activities was recognized, and sport for all was practised through training and expansion of female leadership in sports.

The biggest characteristic of sports policy since 1980 is the change from state-led policy to private sector-led policy. Also, discussions about sport for all became more popular, which was reflected in the policy. The social awareness of sports for the community increased as a result of international major competitions such as the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games.

Since the 1980s, women’s sports have been actively promoted and conducted through programme lectures at public and private sports institutions and community sports centres. In particular, the housewife sports club of the Community Sports Center has become one of the welfare programmes for women and the elderly who are alienated from sports (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014c). In 1981, the Korean Women’s Sports Association was launched to hold national sports club competition for women. Although sports participation by women before the 1980s was limited to indoor sports such as gymnastics, aerobics, and swimming, after 1980 women sports activities such as orienteering, paragliding, windsurfing, horseback riding, rafting, rock climbing, trekking, etc. have become widespread.

In the 2000s, the Korean government tried to expand policies for public welfare, including voluntary participation by the people, improvement of economic standards, support for multicultural families, and preparation for ageing. In addition, enactment of prostitution prevention, abolition of patriarchal family system, and female-friendly human resources policies were implemented with a view to promoting women’s welfare. In light of the ‘National Sports Promotion Five-Year Plan’, the Korean government promotes all programmes of sport, facilities, and leaders, sports 7330 campaign, sports promotion for the disabled, support for the underprivileged, senior sports club leaders, support for multicultural family sports clubs, etc. Currently, the Korean government is trying to establish a sport for all policy in order to realize a healthy lifestyle for all through sports.

The influence of the government’s sport for all policy has contributed to the activation of women’s community sports. The recent increase in the number of women participating in sports has led to more stable institutional support. Specifically, policy support is increasing for underprivileged women to participate in sports and to increase opportunities for women’s participation. Women’s community sport is in the process of spreading socially with the help of legal and institutional support (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014c).

According to the 2019 National Life and Sports Survey, the rate of regular PA participation at least once a week (more than 30 minutes per exercise) was 66.6% in 2018 (Tables 11.2 & 11.3). Although the 68.1% rate for men is slightly higher than the 65.1% for women, the difference is negligible.

Of all the participating sport events, walking is the most common sport for both men and women in South Korea. Men enjoyed bodybuilding, soccer, and cycling more than women, while women enjoyed swimming and yoga (including Pilates) more than men (Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, 2019). Although participation rates in sport are similar today, there is a clear division in terms of sports that aim for masculinity or femininity.

Table 11.2 2019 Sports Participation by Year


2014 2015 2016




Participation (%)

54.8 56.0 59.5




Source: Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (2019)

Table 11.3 2019 Sports Participation by Age (unit: %)

Contents IO—l9yr

20-29yr 3O-39yr 40-49yr 50-59yr 6O-69yr

Over 70yr


Female 42.0

Male 57.5

  • 64.6 69.1 71.2 71.5
  • 73.2 71.4 69.4 70.0
  • 69.5
  • 68.5
  • 57.1
  • 58.9
  • 65.1
  • 68.1

Source: Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (2019)

Training women’s sports leaders

Physical education

Leaders in the field include PE instructors in charge of regular PE classes, sports instructors in school sports clubs including after-school activities, and sports coaches in school sport teams. In general, PE instructors are selected through a teacher certification examination (Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation, 2020) conducted once a year in the country. The sports instructor must acquire a Level 1/Level 2 Life Sports Instructor certification or higher through training, qualification, and verification (Korea Sports Promotion Foundation, 2020) for sports instructor, and the sports coach must obtain a Level 1/Level 2 Professional Sports Instructor certificate.

Elite sports

Coach training requires obtaining a Level 1/Level 2 Professional Sports Instructor certificate through training, qualification, and verification (idem) for sports instructor. In addition, the Korean Sports & Olympic Committee conducts a variety of leadership training; elite sports coach training, school sports team coach training, empowerment for sports diplomacy, outstanding athletes training for international sports, employment support services for systematic training and support for retired athletes, retired athlete support programme, strengthening professional skills of outstanding athletes, female sports leader training projects aimed at fostering female experts in the sports field, and clean referee training to create a fair and transparent sports culture.

Community sport (sport for all)

The required instructor training in the field must be obtained through training, qualification, and verification (idem) of sports instructor conducted in the country. In other words, instructors need to obtain Level 1/Level 2 Professional Sports Instructor certificate, Level 1/Level 2 Life Sports Instructor, Level 1/ Level 2 Disabled Sports Instructor, Youth Sports Instructor, Elderly Sports Instructor, Fitness and Health Instructor certificate to be active as a leader in the field of PE.

Sports organizations for women

Since 1945, a group dedicated to women’s sports has been formed amidst the male-oriented sports world, playing a large role in the development of women’s sports. A lot of effort has been made to challenge and develop women’s sports, such as fostering women’s sports leaders, supporting women’s sports talents, and cultivating women’s sports leadership aimed at fostering women experts in the sports field. We introduce women’s sports-related organizations that are working hard to develop women’s sports in Korea.

Korean Association of Physical Education and Sports for Girls and Women (KAPESGW)

In 1946, the ‘Korea Women’s Sports Federation’, a social group of women sports alumni, was formed to promote sports in schools and society, while also conducting dance and health education classes and workplace sports activities aimed at expanding women’s PE. In 1954, it was renamed Korea Women’s Sports Association, and in 1969, it was again renamed “Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women”.

KAPESGW held various classes for PE teachers in elementary, middle, and high schools. They have also worked hard to cultivate leaders in the field of physical and professional sports, as well as conducting academic research and analysis of women’s sport. Through the publication of the Journal of Activities and Sciences, it contributed to the training of female sports scholars who majored in PE in college. Recently, research relating to women’s sports has been conducted in accordance with international standards, and various studies are being conducted in conjunction with approaches in the fields of natural sciences and social sciences. In particular, the focus has shifted to global women’s sports leaders, changing sports culture and sports human rights, measures to expand participation of women’s sports leaders, women’s competency and vision, women athletes’ tasks and roles, nurturing women’s sports professionals, and developing women’s careers in the sports world. There are also active studies on leadership and empowerment of female athletes, including female leadership.

Women’s sports committee within Korean Sport & Olympic Committee

Under the Korean Sport &. Olympic Committee, the ‘Women’s Sports Promotion Committee’ was founded in 1952, and in 1954 the ‘Women’s Sports Research Committee’ was formed with the approval of the Korean Sport &. Olympic Committee. In 1956, it was renamed as the ‘Women’s Sports Committee’. Since 2002, a female executive has been appointed to the Korean Sport &. Olympic Committee. Seminars and forums, mainly related to the promotion of women’s sports, have been held to share problems such as human rights issues and sexual violence in women’s sports with the aim of seeking solutions. It is significant that the Women’s Sports Committee was established by way of a national network within the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee.

Korean Women’s Sports Association

This was founded in 1981 as the Sports Women’s Association, and in 1990 it was approved as the Korean Women’s Sports. It is a group of women national retirees and current players. It was established with the goal of distributing and guiding women’s sports and contributing to a healthy family and a vibrant society in order to reciprocate the popularity received from Korean fans during their days as athletes. The organization develops women’s sports, hosts lectures and seminars by elite athletes, develops programmes to promote life sports, operates sports classes, supports women’s sport teams at universities, exchanges with foreign sports-related organizations, commemorates the 1988 Seoul Olympics, and holds scholarships. Various projects such as business implementation and publication of women’s sports magazines were promoted.

I 00 Female Athletes of Being

In 2009, this group was formed with the goal of replacing a generation of sportswomen through the development of female athletes’ expertise, abilities, and with excellent characteristics. This was realized through a harmonization of female athletes, representation of female athletes’ rights and interests, exchange/ cooperation with women sports organizations in Korea and abroad, development and support of female sports policies, (retraining for female athletes, seminars and academic forums. It has led to a growing recognition of female athletes’ interests.


Recently, women’s participation in sports has increased, and female athletes are consistently doing well at international competitions. However, there is still little opportunity for women to show leadership and become decision makers. To improve this, it is necessary to enrich and strengthen women’s experiences, values, and ways of thinking through women’s active participation in sports activities and leadership development. At the same time, equal opportunities should be provided to further empower women’s leadership capabilities.

Sport is a voluntary cultural activity that utilizes leisure time to meet a variety of needs and live a fulfilling life. Sports is a catalyst for promoting the quality of life, hence the government’s mission of safeguarding the welfare state and the basic rights of all citizens. Accordingly, the government of Moon Jae-in (2018— 2023) is expecting sports to act as a catalyst for accelerating the realization of a welfare state, which is now included in the top 100 national tasks (100 Female Athletes of Being, 2014c).

South Korea should systematically promote women’s sports, which in turn can enable women to be healthy and happy through sports. When women are happy, home, society, and state are also happy. Hence, women’s well-being is part of the real solution to equity and equality.


100 Female Athletes of Being. (2014a). 100 years of Korean women’s sports I: Women and physical education. 100 Female Athletes of Being.

  • 100 Female Athletes of Being. (2014b). 100 years of Korean women’s Sports II: Womenand elite sport. 100 Female Athletes of Being.
  • 100 Female Athletes of Being. (2014c). 100 years of Korean women’s sports III: Womenand sport for all. 100 Female Athletes of Being.

Han Tae-ryong. (2010). Analysis and activation plan of female students’ sports activities. Seoul: Korea Institute of Sport Science.

International Olympic Committee. (2014). Olympic agenda 2020: 20+20 recommendations. https://stillmed.olympic.org/Documents/01ympic_Agenda_2020/01ympic_Agenda_ 2020' 20' 20_Recommendat ionS'EN G .pdf

Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation. (2020). Teacher certification examination. www.kice.re.kr

Korean Sport & Olympic Committee. (2019). Korean sport & Olympic Committee, www. sports.or.kr

Korea Sports Promotion Foundation. (2020). Sports instructors, www.insports.or.kr

Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. (2019). National life sports survey, www.mcst. go.kr

Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. (2016). Presentation for promotion of physical education and arts education. Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development, www.moe.go.kr

South Korea. (2020). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Korea

United Nations Development Program. (2017). Human development report. http://hdr. undp.org/en/composite/GIl

World Economic Forum. (2017). The global gender gap report 2017. https:/weforum.org/ reports/the'global-gender-gap'report'2017

Chapter 12

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