An Opportunity to Leapfrog by Integrating Knowledge and Wisdom In-Country

The worldwide transition to low-carbon societies is a massive undertaking and it is up to each Asian country to set a vision for future society. Therefore, each country needs to form policies for national and local development by utilising its in-country knowledge without relying on others. It is necessary for each country to understand its specific situation and explore a future vision with the citizens who love their own country, with their full ownership.

This is a historical challenge that Asia is facing and, at the same time, it is a perfect opportunity for Asian countries to lead the development of a low-carbon world.

Good Practices of Science-Based Climate Policy Development Making Progress in Asia

Under these circumstances, this book aims to outline the challenges faced by each Asian country on how they are progressing in building up low-carbon societies, and it aims to share the information with other countries in the region and the rest of the world. By doing so, global cooperation for developing low-carbon societies can be further promoted.

The first part of this book clarifies that Asia holds the key to worldwide climate stabilisation, and examines model analyses of China, India, Japan, Vietnam, and Asia as a whole, showing that there is large scope for achieving development while reducing GHG emissions.

The second part introduces good practices showing how results of the examination of model analyses are actually incorporated into national and local-level low-carbon development policies and how they effectively work for policy formulation. For example, in Thailand, results from the model analysis have supported the Thai Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to be submitted to the Conference of the Parties under the UNFCCC. This is a good example of nationallevel science-based policy formulation. On the other hand, in Malaysia, results from the model analysis on Iskandar were applied as a scenario in the development of a low-carbon society in Iskandar. Urban population is expected to account for 70– 80 % of the worldwide population within this century. Therefore, it is likely that urban areas will take a front-line role in the formulation of low-carbon societies. The example of Iskandar shows one good practice in low-carbon society formulation.

The third part explains how to overcome barriers to measures implemented in each country's major policy sectors so that possible GHG emission reduction is actually realised by utilising good practices developed so far. Key categories for promoting decarbonisation are the promotion of public transportation, formulation of compact and energy-efficient cities, and forest conservation for enhancing carbon sinks and biomass energy use. Moreover, education and research communities are essential for formulating science-based policies. In this part, we present some advanced examples of how Asian countries are facing up to the challenges of leapfrogging to low-carbon societies.

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