Ten Actions to Achieve the Low-Carbon Society in Asia

In order to realize an LCS that satisfies the multifaceted needs and values of each Asian country, it is vital to gain the cooperation of a wide range of stakeholders, including policy makers, international aid agencies, private companies, local

Table 1.1 Assumptions of society in 2050

Advanced society scenario (ADV)

Conventional society scenario (CNV)


Accepts the new social system, institution, technologies, etc., positively and proactively

Discreet about the new social system, institution, technologies, etc., and worries about their transition cost


Annual growth rate from 2005 to 2050, 3.27 %/year (global) and

4.16 %/year (Asia)

Annual growth rate from 2005 to 2050, 2.24 %/year (global) and

2.98 %/year (Asia)


Total population in 2050, 9.3 billion persons in the world and 4.6 billion persons in Asia


Education system will be improved positively

Education system will be improved normally

Education period, from 4–12 years in 2005 to 11–14 years in 2050

Education period, from 4–12 years in 2005 to 8–13 years in 2050

How to use time

Time for working and improving career will be longer

Time for staying with family or friends will be longer


Full employment in 2075

Fixed unemployment rate to 2009 level


Efficiency will be improved immediately

Efficiency will be improved gradually

International cooperation

Reduction of trade barriers and FDI risks

Gradual improvement in collaborative relationships among Asian countries





Increase of demand due to high economic growth

Gradual increase of demand

Land use

More speedy and more efficient land use change

Moderate and careful land use change

communities, and NGOs, and share their long-term visions and strategies for an LCS. “Ten Actions toward Low Carbon Asia” as shown in Fig. 1.3 provides a guideline to plan and implement the strategies for an LCS in Asia (Low-Carbon Asia Research Project 2012, 2013). It takes into account the interrelationships between individual policies and the sequence in which they should be implemented. It also discusses the necessary actions to be taken by governments, private sectors, citizens, and international cooperation agencies on a priority basis.

In the following sections, each action is explained.

Hierarchically Connected Compact Cities

Economic growth has led to rapid motorization and urban sprawl in major cities in Asia, giving rise to various problems such as traffic congestion and air pollution. Nevertheless, most developing countries lack low-carbon, sustainable city planning. Many developing countries have prioritized road development in response to growing transport demand, resulting in a vicious circle in which even greater car use is induced. Since around 2000, major cities in Asia have begun to undertake urban railway development, but so far its level is not at all adequate. Developing

Fig. 1.3 Ten actions toward low carbon Asia

countries are also far behind developed countries in terms of vehicle technologies, as advanced technologies are not currently affordable.

Strategies for low-carbon urban transport are to AVOID unnecessary transport demand, to SHIFT transport modes to lower-carbon types, and to IMPROVE energy efficiency in transport. These can be realized with compact cities having wellconnected hierarchical urban centers (AVOID strategy), a seamless and hierarchical transport system (SHIFT strategy), and low-carbon vehicles with efficient road traffic systems (IMPROVE strategy). Moreover, it is important to integrate urban transport systems with interregional transport systems in ways that reduce traffic congestion. Taking into account the CO2 emission target of a city in a developing country, the national government is responsible for determining the appropriate types of urban structure and urban transport network consistent with the vision of interregional transport development. To support such development, international financing for green development needs to be greatly strengthened. Newly introduced international financial assistance should actively include low-carbon transport development. On the other hand, industries are responsible for developing electrification technologies for smaller vehicles to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions. Citizens should thus be encouraged to explore a higher quality of life by using public transport and smaller vehicles, not following the conventional path of mobility growth to larger cars.

On the development pathway through 2050, according to urban agglomeration in cities along interregional rail corridors for passenger and freight transport, low-carbon urban transport systems can be developed. These transport systems will provide reliable services to support globalized economic activities by improving the efficiency of urban freight movement and increasing the speed of urban public transport. On the other hand, as resource constraints become more serious and Asian developing countries begin to become aged societies from 2030, systems adaptable to diverse transport requirements can be developed as urban infrastructure stock.

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