Structure and Trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Vietnam
A summary of the national GHG inventories in 1994, 2000 and 2005 is given in Table 5.1. The data in the table are the total amounts of GHG emissions in the base year and are converted into CO2 equivalents. Figure 5.3 shows the trends in GHG emissions from different sectors in the inventory periods.
Excluding the absorption from LULUCF, the volumes of GHG emissions from activities in the industrial, energy, agriculture and waste management sectors also tended to increase, but by different amounts. Among those, emissions from the energy sector have been the fastest rising trend. The change in the structure of GHG emissions as a result of the third inventory excluding the LULUCF sector is represented and trends are shown in Fig. 5.4.
Trends in Emissions from Different Sectors
Emissions from industrial processes and waste account for a small proportion of GHG emissions in Vietnam. With the economic development trend toward green
Fig. 5.3 Total GHG emissions from different sectors in the inventory periods (x1000 tCO2e) (Source: Compiled from Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity
Building Project. JICA
growth and low-carbon development, the industries that have high potential for emissions, such as cement, steel, and chemicals, will not likely be developed at high speed to create a larger proportion of the total emissions, while emissions from the waste sector will remain at the same level. Urban development will require accompanied waste minimization and management solutions will reduce the environmental pollution and GHG emissions.
The sectors that currently have the largest proportion of emissions are agriculture and energy. However, emissions from energy will tend to increase rapidly in the coming years in terms of total volume (Fig. 5.3) as well as the proportion of the emission structure (Fig. 5.4). As is likely in most other countries, the energy sector will account for the largest emissions in the economic structure of the country in the years to come.
In the previous year, emissions from the agricultural sector accounted for over 50 % of the components of Vietnam's GHG emissions and emissions of CO2 and CH4 (mainly from the energy sector) accounted for approximately 50 %. However, the trend in emissions from energy will increase and serve as the main source of emissions in Vietnam in the coming years, and CO2 will be the main GHG emissions in Vietnam, beyond emissions of CH4 from agriculture and waste.
Fig. 5.4 Trends in the proportions of GHG emissions from different sectors (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity Building Project. JICA 2014)