Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Sectors
22.214.171.124 The Energy Sector
The energy sector has had important implications for the process of sustainable development of the national economy and people's lives in recent years. Vietnam's energy sector has contributed significantly to the country's development, industrial growth and exports. The total primary energy consumption of Vietnam for the period of 2000–2009 showed an average increase of 6.54 %/year and reached 57 million toes (tons of oil equivalents). In 2009, the average coal consumption increased 12.12 %/year, fuel 8.74 %/year, gas 22.53 %/year, and power 14.33 %/ year, reaching 74.23 billion kWh.
The total final energy consumption in 2000 was 26.28 million toes, which increased to 40.75 million toes in 2007, during which the proportion of coal consumption increased from 12.3 to 14.9 %, gasoline consumption increased from 26.3 to 34.4 %, gas consumption increased from 0.1 to 1.3 % and electricity consumption increased from 7 to 12.9 %. Regarding the structure of energy consumption by different sectors, this has changed; in 2000, 30.6 % of energy consumption was in industry, 14.7 % was in transport, 1.5 % was in agriculture, 48.8 % was in the residential sector, and 4.4 % was in commercial services. By 2007, the proportion in industry rose by 34.3 %, agriculture increased by 1.6 %, transportation increased by 21.2 %, the civil sector proportion dropped 39.1 %, and commercial services.
Fig. 5.5 Total GHG emissions from the energy sector in the inventory periods (x1000 tCO2 e) (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity
Building Project. JICA
These figures suggest that in addition to contributing to the country's economic development, the increasing exploitation and use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for energy have increased GHG emissions. In the energy sector, GHG emissions come from fuel combustion, mining activities and transportation. The main types of emission inventories in the energy sector include (1) GHG emissions from fuel combustion and (2) emissions from GHG emissions. GHG emissions from fuel combustion are divided into sub-sectors: electricity, industry and construction, transportation, trade/services, civil, agriculture/forestry/fisheries, and other. Emissions from GHG emissions are due mainly to coal, oil, gas and gas leaks.
GHG inventory results in the energy sector for the years 1994, 2000 and 2005 are shown in Fig. 5.5.
In total, emissions calculated over the time inventory of GHG emissions from the combustion of fuel account for about 85–90 %, and the rest is due to leakage from the fuel extraction process (coal, oil and gas), storage and transport of fuel.
126.96.36.199 Industrial Processes
The position of industries is increasingly being confirmed in the national economy; the industries are increasingly rich and diverse, ensuring the supply of products and raw materials essential for both consumption and production.4 Export values of industrial production (in 1994 constant prices) in 2010 were estimated at 795.1 trillion VND, 4.0 times more than in 2000. In the 10 years from 2001 to 2010 the average annual increase was 14.9 %, while the state sector increased 2.1 times, an average annual increase of 7.8 %; the non-state area increased 6.5 times, an average annual increases of 20.5 %; regional foreign investment increased more than 4.7 times, an average annual increase of 16.7 %.
A number of important industrial products for production and consumption have reached a relative high with population growth. The output of coal in 2010 reached 44.0 million tons, 3.8 times the output in 2000, an average annual increase of 13.7 % over the 10 years from 2001 to 2010; 7.9 million tons of rolled steel were produced, a 3.5-fold increase, with an average annual increase of 17.5 %; 55.8 million tons of cement, a 3.8-fold increase, 15.4 %/year; 2.6 million tons of chemical fertilizers, a 2.1-fold increase, 7.8 %/year; 1887.1 thousand tons of paperboard, a 4.6-fold increase, 16.5 %/year; 1.2 billion m2 of silk, a 3.4-fold increase, up to 13 %/year; 436.3 million boxes of condensed milk, a 1.9-fold increase, 6.7 %/year; 2.4 billion liters of beer, a 3.1-fold increase, 11.8 %/year; and 91.6 billion kwh of electricity were generated, a 3.4-fold increase, 13.1 %/year.
In addition to these results, the development of industries has exposed many shortcomings: low added value and a downward trend, with investment inefficiency and low technology levels.
GHG emissions from industrial processes are not the form of emissions related to energy use in the industrial processes. The emissions considered are those generated by the interaction of the physics and the chemistry of the material during material processing. Heavy and chemical industries in Vietnam so far are only at modest levels, so their GHG emissions are only considered as secondary sources. This is also consistent with the general trend throughout the world.
The GHG inventory for the period between 2000 and 2005 estimated emissions for different types of manufacturing industry, including cement, lime production, ammonium production, carbide production, and iron and steel production. In the first GHG inventory for 1994, the emissions also included the production of paper, alcohol and processed foods. However, the proportion of emissions from these activities is very small, so they are not included in the latter GHG inventories.
GHG inventory results for industry are shown in Fig. 5.6.
Fig. 5.6 Total GHG emissions in industrial processes in the inventory periods (x1000 tCO2 e) (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity Building Project. JICA 2014)
188.8.131.52 The AFOLU Sector
The agricultural sector in the period of 2001–2010 saw steady growth, providing products with improved quality to better meet the needs of production, domestic consumption and export. The value of agriculture, forestry and fisheries (in 1994 constant prices) in 2010 was estimated at 232.7 trillion VND, up 66.4 % compared with the year 2000. The structures of agriculture, forestry and fisheries have transferred toward reducing the proportions of agriculture and forestry, with fisheries increasing in density. In 2000, the value of agricultural production (at current prices) accounted for 79 % of the total output value of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and forestry and fishing accounted for 4.7 % and 16.3 %, respectively; by 2010 the proportions were 76.3 %, 2.6 % and 21.1 %, respectively.
In addition to these achievements, the agricultural sector also has some drawbacks such as low-quality products and low value added. Development that has mainly focused on exploiting the potential of land, resources and labor rather than investment in cultivation and processing technologies has led to low-quality products. These inadequacies also lead to negative impacts of agriculture on the environment and ecology, which must be considered in terms of the increasing emissions of greenhouse gases from the types of agricultural activity.
The GHG emissions in agriculture come mainly from activities such as rice
farming, raising livestock, emissions from arable land, and burning of agricultural products. The GHG emissions from agricultural activities are CH4 and N2O. The agricultural activities considered in calculation of the GHG emission inventory include enteric fermentation, livestock manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soils, and field burning of agricultural residues. Among the agricultural activities, water rice cultivation account for most GHG emissions (45–60 %), followed by emissions from agricultural soils, enteric fermentation from cattle, and emissions from cattle manure. Other activities make up only a small proportion of emissions. Aggregate emissions from the agricultural sector are presented in Fig. 5.7
According to the 1994 GHG inventory, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector were 52.45 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents, accounting for 50.50 % of total GHG emissions in the country. By the year 2000 this had changed to 65.09 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents, accounting for 43.10 % of the total national GHG emissions (including emissions from rice cultivation, which accounted for 57.50 %; 21.85 % came from agricultural soils; 11.88 % came from enteric fermentation, and the rest came from manure management, and field burning of agricultural residues). According to data from the GHG inventory in 2005, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector were 83.828 million tons of CO2 equivalents, accounting for 46.10 % of total GHG emissions in the country (including emissions
Fig. 5.7 Total GHG emissions from the agriculture sector (x1000 tCO2 e) (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity Building Project. JICA 2014)
Fig. 5.8 Proportion of GHG emissions from the agriculture sector in 2005 (Source: Interim Report of Inventory Capacity Building Project. JICA 2014)
from rice cultivation, accounting for 44.49 %; 32.22 % came from agricultural soils, 11.54 % came from enteric fermentation, and the rest came from manure management and field burning of agricultural residues) (Fig. 5.8).
Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
Forests have roles as both emission sources and GHG sinks. Activities such as land use change and forest exploitation are the source of CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, the activities of forest protection, reforestation and afforestation are sinks. Forestry, land use and land use change are areas of great potential GHG absorption through the reservoir of carbon from forests, soil, and vegetation if they are well managed, protected and appropriately exploited. The estimation of GHG emissions and absorption in this field focuses on the following main groups of activities: changes in the reserve forest area and biomass in natural forests and plantations; conversion of land use from forest land to other land; abandoned land management; and emission and absorption of CO2 from the soil. Change of land use often causes
Fig. 5.9 Total GHG emissions from the LULUCF sector (x1000 tCO2 e) (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity Building Project. JICA 2014)
more CO2 emissions, while change in forest area (in term of increases) often leads to increased levels of CO2 absorption. The inventory results for this area over the inventory period are given in Fig. 5.9.
According to the 1994 GHG inventory, the amount of GHG emissions in the field of forestry and land use change was 19.38 million tons of CO2 equivalents, accounting for 18.70 % of total GHG emissions in the country. The GHG inventory in 2000 estimated that the emissions in the forestry and land use change sectors was 15.10 million tons of CO2 equivalents, accounting for 10 % of the total national GHG emissions. The corresponding figure in the 2005 GHG inventory was -27.02 million tons of CO2 equivalents, representing -14.8 % of total GHG emissions in the country. Thus, the LULUCF sector has become a major greenhouse gas sink in Vietnam. There is no satisfactory explanation for this sudden change in the calculated results. These issues will also need to be discussed for clarification. But it is clear that the forestry, land use and land use change sector in Vietnam has great potential for GHG absorption through the reservoir of carbon from forests, soil, and vegetation, if they are well managed, protected, and appropriately and sustainably exploited and used.
GHG emissions from the waste management sector are calculated for collected and disposed municipal solid wastes and GHG emissions from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. It is estimated that every year about 15 million tons of solid waste is discharged from various sources, of which over 80 % are from urban areas, and the rest is industrial waste. However, only part of this waste is collected and processed; the data show that the proportions are over 70 % in urban areas and more than 20 % in rural areas.
Fig. 5.10 Total GHG emissions from the waste sector (x1000 tCO2 e) (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity
Building Project. JICA
Fig. 5.11 Proportion of GHG emissions from the waste sector in 2005 (Source: Vietnam Second Communication Report 2010, and Interim Report of Inventory Capacity
Building Project. JICA
The calculation of GHG emissions from the waste sector in GHG inventories for Vietnam focuses on the main sources of emissions including CH4 emissions from solid waste landfills; CH4 emissions from industrial wastewater and domestic sewage; N2O emissions from domestic sewage sludge; and CO2 and N2O emissions from the incineration of waste. The inventory results are given in Figs. 5.10 and 5.11
In the waste sector, emissions from domestic wastewater are the largest, which are estimated about 3.4 million tons, accounting for about 42 %; the emissions from landfill waste are 2.3 million tons, accounting for 28 %, and the emissions from human waste are approximately 1.69 million tons. Emissions from combustion of solid waste are not high, only about 0.9 % by incineration operations, as this technology is not popular. To reduce GHG emissions from the waste sector requires a focus on the areas of domestic sewage and solid waste landfill.
The data on the status of GHG emissions in Vietnam have shown that two areas that have high levels of emissions are energy and agriculture, while two other sectors, industrial processes and waste, have much lower levels. Depending on the characteristics and properties of GHG emissions in four areas, it shows that to reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector and industrial processes requires large investments with wide impacts on socio-economic aspects; while the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the AFOLU sector and waste management may require lower funding with fewer impacts on the economics. In particular, the LULUCF sector also has high potential for GHG absorption. However, to get a clearer view of the potential to reduce GHG emissions, it is necessary to analyze and assess the opportunities and challenges for reducing GHG emissions in Vietnam.
-  General Statistic Office (2014)