The Impact on Energy Security
Security of the energy supply side can be defined as “the availability of energy at all times in many forms to ensure sufficient quantity and at an acceptable price” https://iea.org/topics/energysecurity/subtopics/whatisenergysecurity/. This definition refers to the prevention and mitigation of emergencies in the short term as well as limiting the risk of energy security in the long term.
Climate change and energy security have become the two main drivers of energy policy in the future of the country. While energy security has been the focus of energy policy for nearly a century, the concern about climate change has emerged in recent times, but has a significant influence and alters virtually all of the context of energy policy. The key problem that decision makers are faced with is how to simultaneously ensure national energy security, while reducing GHG emissions. There is no guarantee of energy security, often due to the non-availability of energy and because energy prices are not competitive or are too unstable. In fact, these effects are often very difficult to assess; therefore, it is difficult to determine a reasonable policy. In the context of climate change, countries usually have a certain number of activities to ensure energy security. Firstly, countries may seek to minimize the short-term effects due to lack of power supply in case of power interruption or, secondly, may make efforts to improve energy security in the long term. In the first case, the country often resolves to build strategic reserves. For example, in the case of oil, the International Energy Agency (IEA) coordinates the use of emergency oil reserves between member states. The government also seeks to establish contingency plans to limit consumption, thereby minimizing the impact due to the lack of energy. In the second case, the policies tend to focus on determination of the root causes of loss of energy security in the context of climate change, such as interruption of power systems related to catastrophes or extreme weather conditions; balancing supply and demand in the market for short-term power; monitoring the effectiveness of management and regulation; and focusing on fossil fuel sources by minimizing the possibility of the risk of depending on the supply of energy in the traditional market and reducing use of fossil fuels or diversifying the type of power supply.
Each system of energy security policy allows identification of potential overlaps with policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector. For example, policies to address resources can significantly affect GHG emissions and vice versa, because they tend to impact the choice of fuel and related technologies. In contrast, policies to overcome regulatory failures can only have a secondary impact on emission reduction policies. Thus GHG emission reduction policies can cause a great impact on plans and strategies to ensure energy security in the country.