Co-Benefits of Thailand's NAMAs
Energy Security Aspect
Co-benefits of GHG mitigation actions in Thailand NAMAs in terms of energy security have been assessed. The co-benefit aspects under consideration are of the following indicators: (1) Diversity of Primary Energy Demand (DoPED), (2) Net Energy Import Dependency (NEID), (3) Net Oil Import Dependency (NOID), (4) Net Gas Import Dependency (NGID) and (5) Non-Carbon-based Fuel Portfolio (NCFP), along with four co-benefits, which are (1) oil import intensity (OII), (2) gas import intensity (GII), (3) energy intensity (EI) and (4) carbon intensity (CI).
Results from analyses of energy security show that CO2 countermeasure implementations under Thailand's NAMAs are able to increase national energy security since Thailand's NAMAs are related to the promotion of renewable electricity generation, which will also reduce the use of fossil fuels in electricity generation and increase the energy efficiency in the industrial and building sectors. In the case of a GHG reduction of 20 % in 2020, the indicators for DoPED and NEID will be increased by 2.66 % and 10.56 %, respectively, whilst the indicators for NOID and NGID will be decreased by 3.65 % and 3.62 %, respectively, when compared to BAU for 2020. From the increase in renewable energy, the CO2 emissions can be reduced, which will result in an increased NCEP indication of 18.99 %.
In addition, the indicators on OII and GII will be decreased by 8.14 % and 8.35 %, respectively. Furthermore, the indicators on energy intensity and carbon intensity in the case of a GHG reduction of 20 % in 2020 will be decreased by 17.9 % and 18.3 %, respectively, when compared to BAU.
Therefore, promoting the use of renewable energy can increase the energy security indices and GHG mitigation in Thailand. In general, Thailand still has many kinds of useful renewable energy resources which have high potential to be utilised because Thailand is an oil-importing country, so it is important that the government give more attention to promote the renewable energy resources to replace the imported fossil fuels (Limmeechokchai et al. 2014).
Thailand NAMA implementation will directly result in decreased fossil fuel consumption. Consequently, a large amount of GHG emissions will be mitigated. In addition, other gases from combustion of fossil fuels will be mitigated as well. Transport NAMA actions will directly improve local and city air quality. It was also found that Thailand's NAMA actions will result in not only decreased CO2 emissions, but also decreased CO, NOx and SO2 emissions.